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"Asian", "Alabai", " the Central Asian sheep-dog " 

Under these names ,we have got used to perceive the breed of these dogs, which have been taken out once from far Central Asia. Unfortunately, the name fixed by the standard creates incorrect representation about breed. Among experts disputes do not cease: whether to consider in general the Central Asian sheep-dog as breed or group of breeds which the Soviet cynologists have precipitately united once in one. In fact in each country or even the separate district entering into Average (Central) Asia, the dogs helping shepherds to protect a flock, know at all under a name " the Central Asian sheep-dog ". In Kirghizia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan e.t.c. But the one who saw these dogs in places of their prime dwelling, never will confuse "Turkmen" and "Tadjik". If to explain accessible language is as for us Japanese and Chinese on one person though the difference is obvious to them. We just wish to acquaint the reader with one of these breeds, namely Turkmen Alabai or as it still often name on its direct applicability, a Turkmen wolfhound. In Turkmenistan Alabai is declared as national property and it is forbidden to export from the country.By the order of the government for Turkmen TV recently made a film about these dogs. Turkmen's are proud of Good Alabai, as they are proud of their stallions, and never for any money will not sell to a stranger.This ancient breed which has kept the shape practically constant up to now, the proud sight, executed wisdom. In it there is nothing artificial, created by the person to please to a fashion. It - embodiment of the Force, capable to resist to a severe reality of a life.

Therefore a word "sheep-dog" radically incorrect: it is not a dog living with sheep flock and guards the sheep on a command of the shepherd. He/she is a wolfhound, dog, independently making the decision, capable to drive away wolves, to protect the owner and his property. The main criterion of selection skill is to conduct fights for dogs if the dog is not capable to stand up for itself , then it has no right to be a flock protector - and and this understanding in Turkmenistan still stands . In Turkmenistan tests fights are done each year, the best Alabai dogs from different corners of the country brought there. Who saw these tournaments, will agree, that they cardinally differ from so-called " the dog fights ". It is more likely similar to a knightly duel or fighting dance where wins strong spirit. Such rigid selection during many generations and daily struggle for a survival promoted creation of that courageous and legendary shape of Alabai which we see today. By new paragraph are entered in history and family trees of many dogs, names of champions Turkmenistan on fights: Kara Kele, White and Black Ekemen, the Polar bear, Акusha, etc. The huge pleasure is delivered when one has contact with these dogs. Each time you learn something new of their mysterious "Asian" soul, being amazed with their remarkable intelligence. Ability to be content, ability to withstand heat and a cold, quickly adapt in various conditions, and also the sound health and the counterbalanced character is only a little bit of those qualities which can win your heart. But it is necessary to remember, that strong do not suffer weakness. 

Therefore we never shall recommend to get a wolfhound to diffident people, elderly or to children as a dog-partner. 

The soldier cannot be babysitter. It demands a firm hand and strong will. Only equal or stronger spirit can estimate all beauty and power of this ancient breed.

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Translated by Admin


Magazine " Your dog business ", №61,2005 ., Page.23-27

Paul Leshchineky: What  is your impressions about exhibition ЕСВВ "VOLKODAV"-2004"?

Farida Bolkunova: Each exhibition is an event for me. Though I many years work as the expert, each arrival to Ukraine opens something new. It would be desirable to note, that I judged rings in many cities, but last exhibition ЕСВВ in Kiev, undoubtedly, has left the strongest both indelible impression! And the most important, that Ukrainian breeders become on a proper way of progress of a Turkmen wolfhound...

P.L.: What does the proper way of progress of this dog mean?

F.B.: It is a harmonious way of development - both the ex-terrier, and working qualities, and behavioral functions. The first places magnificent animals which corresponded to type, have borrowed constitutions, to behavior. All it testifies to harmony of a dog, and I have been pleasantly surprised, that now in Ukraine there were so many good individuals.

P.L.: What do you tell about the organization of an exhibition?

Farida with pupsF.B.: the Exhibition in which participated over hundred fifty wolfhounds, has been organized reasonably well and at a high professional level. Original "highlight" of an exhibition became concept of customs of Turkmen people. In ring specially designed to such show shepherds (the young actors changed clothes for national clothes - Nikita Arhiereev and Denis Leschinsky) started up dogs in an indicative duel! For many attendees this testing was the first acquaintance to wolfhounds what they are (by the way, surprisingly precise name to it show organizers "VOLKODAV-2004") have thought up. I, certainly, have with the great pleasure agreed to comment on an event in a ring, trying as it is possible to stop in greater detail on descriptions of traditions, including " the dog fights ", clothes, etc. In general it is convinced, that knowledge of a dog should begin with studying customs and customs of that people, whence there is a dog. When for the person people, its originality, its shower if it is possible so to be expressed then it is capable to understand how it, i.e. people opens, communicates and copes with animals, what features of its managing.  The only way it is possible  to understand character of a dog, to learn to address with it!

P.L.: You have mentioned pedigree testing wolfhounds. Such duels are how much necessary, whether is valid they are safe for dogs - your opinion?

F.B.:  You have outstripped me, I just intended to pass to conversation on pedigree testing. Certainly, and, first of all, is a centuries-old tradition of Turkmen people. Very good word - "testing" which full enough displays an essence of it zoothechnical actions - checks of nervous system of dogs is found, in my opinion. In Turkmenistan it name " the dog fights ". Fights present sharply differ from fights of the past. Basically the shepherds who are an expert in dogs earlier gathered, is thin wolfhounds understanding character. And nowadays people rather far from Shepard trades pitted  dogs. Therefore all more often on fights is present only passion and a victory at any cost. It is no wonder, that the world community tries to forbid similar shows. No, it is necessary to follow ancient traditions...

P.L.: Why shepherds pitted dogs?

F.B.: Yes ,because  to check nervous system. The skilled eye of the shepherd noticed all merits and demerits of a wolfhound during a duel. On fights the shepherd made the choice - whether it is possible to take this or that dog with itself  in a floor for work for protection of the flock. Without such check of dogs on "professional usefulness" work and a life in a flock is inconceivable. A dog - eyes and ears of the shepherd, but not only it was important for the Turkmen. The main thing is, what  kind of heart  this dog has!

P.L.: Explain more in detail, what it means?

F.B.: With us it happens  this way, that the small or fine dog will fight before loss of the life only to protect the person. But together with it such concept, as the ex-terrier comes. I.e. if the dog has the big heart, strong spirit, but thus it is fine, small or has any errors in the ex-terrier, it will be more difficult to it to work in a flock, to go for it (for example, wrong  front and rear legs  complicates movement)  The Dog should have good legs to keep up with a flock. But thus there is no necessity to force to run a dog improbable distances - up to twenty-thirty kilometers. Being in a working zone, it never runs on such distances, and basically lays. Only a minute of danger the wolfhound "blows up" and runs gallop. Runs on the wolf or the jackal to drive away it and at once to return on the place. The wolfhound absolutely does not have business up to this wolf, it is important to banish only it from the "" territory. Sometimes for such behavior  of Alabai's , joking, call "wolf-chasers".You imagine, how the loaded dog, i.e. with very powerful skeleton, paws 17-17.5 centimeters, heavy muscles can "blow up"? What can it do in the field? -NOTHING! It will not run ten meters! No, good skeleton is necessary to certainly, Turkmen wolfhound, but thus the "dry" not loaded muscles! You know, why  these dogs attract  people involved  they  are honest,  incorruptible, fair and noble! Force and courage of wolfhounds bribe the greatness! These qualities unmatched  with dogs of other breeds! Testing it is necessary for the sake of preservation of instincts. Protection of the territory, service to the PERSON - isn't it enough of motivation   for  a dogs.

P.L.: By the way, about motivation of dogs during testing... 

F.B.: I already spoke about it . The motivation is a preservation, fastening of instincts, namely:- First, protection of the territory;- Secondly, the raised malice to predators and to similar, at the same time, full absence those in relation to the person. In the third, by virtue of the intelligence, yes-yes intelligence, understanding  of a  wolfhound of that  testing  is only has  sports character! For example, fights with their own kind  in a court yard are battles for " a place under the sun ". They more disputed, spiteful and uncompromising! So it is impossible to suppose, that dogs fought  in a court yard  (apply the separate maintenance, walk them  at various times day, etc.). Antoine  De Sent Ekzuperi  has written once: " We in the answer for those whom have tamed ". If you have tamed our dogs, methods and rules of cultivation, training and testing of these dogs should pass how it is done at us. Let today the wolfhound at you protects the house and a court yard, but to train it as the murderer - criminally so - it is inadmissible! Education of the aggressive attitude to the person leads to pitiable results - dogs, as a rule, turn against owners!

P.L.: And how then to train a wolfhound?

F.B.:This dog - territorial, you want it or not. If it ten days will be fed on the same territories, eventually, will understand, that it and is its house. In this case a wolfhound it is obligatory can and begins to protect it without any training. In Turkmenistan  we  do not train dogs, but they superbly  protect territory! Try somebody to get into my court yard... I did not train the dog, but in fact it loves me, my family, my house and my court yard loves. It lives in this court yard, at last, and therefore will always protect it!

P L.: How then it should react towards total stranger?

F.B.: Concerning the person it should not be such spiteful though in the potential it is a spiteful dog.
Turkmen's  who conducted a nomadic way of life, had no limited spaces - court yard, and displayed the tents among plains directly open-air. Dogs marked the territory and did not start up there strangers! At the same time people could move freely. To the person was to vote enough, that the dog has learned, that it is the neighbor, and, fence, it is not necessary to bark  and furthermore to attack.

P.L.: You often speak about a Turkmen wolfhound as about an essence reasonable? Whether there were in your life cases which would confirm this idea?

FB.: This breed is extremely intellectual and do not trust those who speaks,that it can be trained easily and simply. The dog in Turkmenistan  lives near to the person, and its life proceeds at very poor dialogue with it. The mistress has left in a court yard, has submitted meal... The Dog is very grateful for it. It goes to the mistress, low having lowered a head, wagging all body, as though showing the kind, how much it is grateful to the mistress. And that even can not look at it! The Some people accept such behavior  of an animal for humiliation... But I consider, that this dog loves immensely the owner, honors  the person for all and on a life will be to it grateful  Wolfhounds in Turkmenistan  to occur in a court yard. Owners do not have such habit, as combing and a hairstyle of dogs, tender petting  and hugging , and, especially, kissing  the favorites. At us such is not present. At the same time, there is no also another - the humiliating attitude to a dog. Anybody and never will tell anything bad about it - be itself Ак-Gush, any domestic or flock  a dog. I had such case - One time one of my bitches was giving birth . They  were very heavy and proceeded already about two day! I was strongly exhausted and have invited in the help "human" gynecologist  which has put it a dropper and in general - was accepted to business with professional determination. At Mohammed Sajunova (so called the doctor) all has really left well. Soon I have heard, as it has said: " It has given birth to last puppy! " It is necessary to tell, that this dog to me was extremely dear is mine Акbay ,my  favorite  Babasya !I  experienced  nerves  as if my daughter gave birth. Therefore, when the doctor so has told, there has come any relaxation or still something - not known, at me the head (health at me not absolutely excellent) has begun to spin and, having lost consciousness, I have crashed down on a floor directly under a chair! Except for the doctor in the house there was my sister Lilja and the working woman of club Galina. They have instantly rushed to me. But before them, having thrown the newborn children, having dumped from itself a dropper, has rushed to me... Mine Аkbay! Then they told me  (as I have told  you - I was without consciousness), that when Аkbay  have run up to me, it has begun to roar on them , having stopped them ,then began to lick my face. It did not help, and I still laid motionlessly. Then she  began to bite slightly my cheeks , and... I have regained consciousness! Gradually began to come to the senses. Having seen that , I have started talking: " Akbaushka , leave, what you want? " I don't  not understand, what  occurs, I am  in such condition... 

And I Акbay, having convinced, apparently, that with me all ok , instantly became mild and has escaped to the puppies . Having returned to puppies, she  began to lick carefully them, has accurately laid down on a place. Only after that both the doctor, and my sister, and Galina could approach to me for first-aid treatment (as it has appeared, at me has sharply risen pressure). When they  told   all that ... (Here Farida  has sharply broken off, as if    something has got stuck  in her  throat. Tears dimmed eyes. We sat silently and motionlessly, trying to not look  at  each other. Then, suddenly, having made a deep and heavy sigh, it has continued). Basically she  has brought me back  and, has probably rescued my  life. Many  years have passed , but  I cannot recollect this case without tears. 

Other case. Before a trip to Ukraine Ак-Gush  overate on  bones ("kind" people have thrown through a fence when the Gipsy - owner Ak-Gusha - was not the at home) and at it in intestines stones were formed. Well here, we come to Donetsk. It is necessary to tell, that a dog  had bleeding for  two days  and there was no possibility to get him  to help. In such condition Ак-Gush  spends the hardest duel with local Estuary (eyewitnesses remember, that then only because of a trauma the Estuary has not left on the second round). During the test all shouted: " Blood! Blood! " Blood flew from anal opening  , and Ак-Gush  from time to time sat down, as he  wished to descend in a toilet. During any moment it with such entreaty has looked to me in eyes, that it seemed to me, I hear its request. I speak: " It hesitates  to descend to the  toilet, because he is not alone here ! It is a shame to him ! " And people don't believe me , do not understand, that these dogs know, that such it is a shame. When the doctor has come and without a muzzle could assist him , everyone have been simply amazed. I after such cases think, that if there is a resurrection after life  of souls these dogs necessarily become people.

P.L.: In conclusion, what would you like to wish our readers?

F.B.: First of all I would like to wish magazine of a recumbent that the circle of the interested readers extended that it has left in weights, it first. Secondly, it would be desirable "DB" to see on pages of even more clauses about wolfhounds and whenever possible more information from the countries of dwelling of these dogs, i.e. Turkmenistan , Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia and Tajikistan. I believe that  you should receive knowledge from primary sources if, certainly, really wish to learn all about WOLFHOUNDS and  WHO  THEY  Really are!


Source http:/ Translated by Admin

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I bear the faith on "Asians"  

F.I.Bolkunovoj's exclusive interview to magazine " ASKA", given after a mono pedigree exhibition in Sergiev Posad where Farida Ismailovna  examined dogs of breed Central Asian sheep-dog

Igor Semenov: Farida, I would like to learn all over again when you were going to go to Russia, your sensations, what you waited for?

F.B.:The basic purpose from which I went to Russia – not distribution of prizes. It was interesting to me to examine a livestock and to note good dogs for cultivation. Certainly, I understand, that this exhibition, maybe, will not be reflected in any way in breeding cultivation because a number of other exhibitions will be covered there and then with its results, and dogs all the same will receive the "Perfect". Nevertheless, I hoped, that probably I will manage to shift any stone. With such ideas I also went here. The Most important – I wished to state the point of view to what it is necessary to endeavor that is necessary for breed and as it is better for making. Therefore I was ready to a uncooperative altitude to myself. But it is ready and to that I shall try something to make for breed. With such ideas I came to  Russian exhibition.

I.S..: What your impression about a livestock which you have seen at an exhibition?

F.B.: The Livestock so polytypic! About some dogs it's difficult to tell, whether they concern to one breed. I.e. such differential types of  dogs in breed suggests that not everything is all right with cultivation. On the other hand, it is pleasant, that many owners of nurseries by themselves in the small facilities create a good livestock of the same dogs. Preparing  I have decided  for myself , that I shall rigidly judge  male dogs and not so  rigid, more loyally, -bitches . Why? I shall share the reasons, though I do not think, that  everyone will run and will start to do how I want them to do. I consider, that to a dog of the requirement should be shown very rigid. At the same time bitches is simply typical «Asiatochka», that  can give a good livestock. From these reasons I am  very strictly judgmental  to males and  much softer to bitches. And still I wish to tell, that when  you put a dog on the first place and you give KCHK, SS and so forth he or she  should be a magnificent dog with all pedigree attributes. Magnificent head, general harmony, and such, would seem "fine" pedigree attributes, on which many very often at all do not pay attention - correctly planted ears, a good lip, powerful nose bridge, fullness under eyes, a powerful bottom jaw, construction of a shoulder, movement. I.S.: Now it would be desirable to clear a situation that has occurred at an exhibition ?

I.S.: Now it would be desirable to clear a situation that has occurred at an exhibition ?

F.B.: Igor, I  tell  you this: I am the  person without claims. I bear the faith on "Asians" and I bear it … People want – listen, do not want – do not listen. It is impossible to force something to impose to the person. When I worked in a ring  I saw, how many looked at me, photographed me. For example, on one dog I showed, what  type of lip should be. On her  upper lip looked like a  "pancake". I have tightened it, characteristic "pocket" for the Central Asian sheep-dog was formed. So even T.M. Ivanov began to remove it there and then. I.e. people like to receive the information, it is interesting to people – no one  ever gave  them such information. People like to receive information, they want to be educated. Who wants to listen, will listen without  any ambitions ,others will say "Who is Farida anyway, some village lady, what does she know anyway?" So the only thing I may say to The others – accept me , as you want! But I wish to say, that no one should never  threaten me, I was never afraid of nobody, and I  never be afraid of nobody. I am afraid only of the God. The rest to me is not terrible. What can you do to me? Kill me? Then kill. Beat me up? I shall recover.

I.S.: What would you like to tell those people, that come to the exhibitions and love these dogs as much as you do, they have their own love for these dogs, maybe they don't know or don't understand as much, but they are experts?

F.B.: The expert – does not mean yet the professional because and among experts there are  a lot of layman's. They have created to themselves a speculative image of a dog and follow it. But in fact it is necessary to plant a dog not that which is pleasant to me or someone, and that which corresponds to the standard. And still, more than to the standard – work. I.e. all is explainable. For example, I was at  exhibition as the spectator, an the expert that was standing next to me said: « I like  thin lip in a bitch ». It's like  stroked me on  the head:« You the expert! The expert who judges all breeds, and you saying that?  »  It was terrible to hear that. What difference does  it make  that  YOU like a thin lip? Perhaps, you will cut out lips in general , maybe  you in general  like a dog with a grin ? But in fact the lip is very important at work. If it will be a thin lip , moreover hanging down downwards and if this dog will start to fight with the wolf (and as they fight with wolves, with jackals, with hyenas) such lip will be constantly bitten by  a canine. Such dog cannot work. Make a conclusion, it not because I like a thick dense lip. Simply such it is necessary for a dog. Why I speak, what greater ear bowls are inconvenient? Because, the wind which overtakes huge barchans, will  blow sand in these ears. It is not necessary to cut  hair on ears – they too protect a dog from the same sand. Why the dog should have small eyes, instead of protruding ? Besides owing to an indispensability. The powerful bottom jaw is indispensable at struggle.  Why angles  as  in the German shepherd are not necessary ? Because  the dog with such angles cannot work, it will constantly sit down. Why the short, strong waist is necessary to a dog? Because the dog with an aspen  waist cannot work and pull the opponent out during a duel with whole body. Any of  the Asian  exteriors has a rational explanation. I speak about it already for many years, but only the few seriously pay attention to that. To get a dog  snub-nosed with bulging eyes full of the blood, the drooped centuries and enormous auricles much easier and to explain to everything, that it is remarkable, as a head of its enormous volume. So is much easier! You think, I it have guessed all? No, it is necessary to study. To study constantly! Yes, I read the literature, I make conclusions, but I learn much from people, from dog breeders. I often go on flocks. And constantly I study. Why the dog should have a deep thorax, moreover and long. Yes because in such thorax there should be a place for the volumetric lungs necessary for a dog for normal breath during fight. Or how the dog does grip? If the dog takes grip a full mouth to it often happens difficultly to breathe, therefore many dogs take "sideways", i.e. one party, and with opposite open that "pocket" about which I spoke above and breathe. And present, if the lip long and hanging down the pocket is not present and to breathe begins much more difficultly. Once again I shall repeat: in this dog all is functional. It is just  necessary, loving this breed to think and comprehend, what for I plant to do with this breed. Some  people only concerned  on receiving: the first place, CAC, CACIB, КCHК, the champion …  … and «Big Bucks» And that's all. As it is impossible to treat this dog like that ! Just , think,  what  for does it exist in this world?  Not for the same that KCHK  you to earn, but for work! I do not speak about fights, - even for protection of a court yard the good working dog harmoniously combining mentality and the ex-terrier is necessary.

I.S.: Are you  going to lead an exhibition again? And how much it is necessary?

F.B.: It is necessary. But, unfortunately, we had the chief of club  a person who now, as a matter of fact, does not work, and sits under authority of high ranks. Therefore all has decayed. But we hope for acts of the new President. He/she is very reasonable person.

I.S.: Big thanks 

F.B.: You are welcome, it's really not a big deal. I only hope this will help people to understand more.

Source Translated by Admin

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(from the interview Of Geldy Kurbanovicha  Kyarizova)

- Combat of wolfhounds… For what reason they test  these beautiful and strong dogs,many ask. So is it really  necessary these struggles in our industrial century? Aren't we  cultivating  cruelty,  which we have  as is  in  life, and on the television screens. Lets  protect these thoroughbred dogs from the every kind of troubles . Thus, we will preserve present Turkmen sheep dog… Is it possible to agree with this opinion? Whether that is  correct, with respect to Turkmen wolfhound? What it nevertheless must be? You are dog specialist, the judge of international category. How you will answer these questions?

- The dog, not capable of stand for itself,  does not have the right to be  with the flock- it was thought this way by Turkmenian shepherds and still is. Many hundreds years Garagumov herdsmen conduct the selection of wolfhounds for the protection of flock, at first glance it is  strange and severe manner - pitting  them. Tests  are usually carried out by spring and in autumn during hair-cutting of sheep and they are not simply entertainment in the lonely life of shepherd, but by main component in the selection of the animals, that are used for the protection of cattle from the predators. This selective work on the species of dogs during many centuries made it possible to create large and courageous dog - medzhek-iti. Turkmen wolfhound cannot be confused  with any other dog. Neither German sheep dog nor Australian collie nor Hungarian of bullet cannot protect flock. With its entire devotion to man at the sight of wolf in these thoroughbred animals operates the instinct of self-preservation, to them simply is not sufficient courage to join the battle with the predator. Certainly, sheep dog - is the qualified herds boy, the assistant of man with the flock, but protect sheep at night can only one dog - wolfhound. He is  a  soldier, ready to give his  life for the protection of  a flock, without considering, rushes across to predator. Therefore medzhek-iti  go either in front of the sheep, cleaning  the way, or from behind, guarding rears. All, what  is required from them, to protect not only flock, but  first of all itself. Therefore it is incorrect to call Turkmen  wolfhounds only  sheep dogs. The labor of shepherd is hard and dangerous. And he cannot allow him self  this luxury - to convey for many kilometers products for the excess dogs. To him it's  not necessary to have tens of light, mobile, but powerless before the wolf animals. Sufficient to have  two-three large and powerful wolfhounds, capable of killing enemy, and it is not necessary to have  helicopters, automobiles, motorcycles in order to destroy wolves.

There is no necessary of  the expensive sheep pens in order to hide the frightened sheep in them. Thus it continued for centuries. However, with the arrival to the territory of Turkmenistan of other cultures, with a change in the view on nature and ecology, concepts and age-old traditions of people with respect to how t selection must pass , medzhek-iti  were driven away. They began to call wolfhound sheep dog. The scientists, who introduced the exterior standards to the species, which correspond to the more tested European models, appeared. Our wolfhound, that was bread  in the European part of the former USSR, and on the appearance began more to resemble the sheep dog, and since the exterior changed, functional possibilities of dog had  changed, this led to a change in the nature of the individual representatives of species. Our breeding stock from different cities of the former USSR bred so many similar dog and so many sold them out of the country, these dogs  strongly discredited the species. Today some  dog activists already talk about rescuing and protection of wolfhound from the cruelty, by which, it is said, are accompanied Testing Of Volkodavs. But it seems to us, that it is, on the contrary, necessary to protect species from „the rescuers “,  to convert courageous soldier  into the living soft and good-natured toy. Furthermore, it is necessary to regulate sale and removal of wolfhounds beyond the limits of Turkmenistan. The fact is that from many regions, and in particular from the fog, Tagtabazara abroad contraband are exported the best representatives of species. Thus we lost in fact stolen from Tedzhena - Gaplana, from the fog - Apachi, from Tagtabazara - Mukhtara By main condition for propagation and retaining the species of the dogs of is creation in each city of rings for testing and the development of the champions of species. We devise nothing anew. In Turkmenistan there are steps -Gushgynskiy, Tagtabazarskiy, Kerkinskiy, Sarakhsskiy, Kakinskiy, Bakherdenskiy, where each inhabitant knew and knows  champions on the ring. They, as a rule, people  greatly value these dogs. Because of The Ashgabatskiy  ring were preserved such bright representatives of species as Black and White Ekemen, Red Ekemen, Karakelle, Akkus, Tokhmet, Old Elbars, Red Elbars, Goymot, Akella. For us it is important to grow not simply large and healthy dog. There are cynological traditions that  indices in the wolfhounds, that exactly as in the work with the sheep dogs, have their starting points. For the sheep dog, for example,  sense of smell  so forth for the Turkmen wolfhound  simple  „large evil dog “-  not sufficient. For the definition of pedigree in  wolfhound its very importantly, for example how he grabs  wolf enemy.  If “grip” not in the region of head and neck, but in the withers or  further - this is already a  deficiency.  We say that  the dog has „cold mouth “, i.e., he grabs enemy and releases in order to intercept. We have Red Elbars. He manages well his whole  body. He entered and withdrew from battle, that there was no even saliva of enemy on him. There are dogs, which „do not have respiration “. And finally the most important index -  how  patient  is wolfhound : it does not squeal after the first bite. Special attention was always paid to the exterior of dog. When it fought, it was noted, how good are front and rear extremities, does it have wide chest,  does it  have the rigid and correct line of the top, powerful back, steep edges and long false ribs. Wolfhound must have  strong short neck, the massive heavy head with the smooth passage from the forehead to the snout, which resembles the head of polar bear. Naturally, all these qualities of the representative of species can be noticed  only on the ring, but not at night, when dog is gripped with the wolf. Then it is already late. Soldier is ready, it is trained or not - will reveal the ring. These are - place and starting point in the selective estimation of wolfhound. So lets speak freely : Turkmen wolfhound exists, until there is the possibility to arrange ring combat. The association created with the participation of firm will make it possible to combine the people united in the opinion, what must this species  be like and what  it is necessary to do  for its retention and improvement.  We intend to create clubs, to conduct the tests of dogs, to introduce selective selection, to publish the tribal books. The traditions of our people, which derived dromedary, Saradzinskiy sheep, borzoi- basins, Iomundskuyu and Aakhaltekinskuyu species of horses, must not be devoted to oblivion. Our debt to protect and to increase wealth.

From interview of one of the chief dog specialists of Turkmenistan Geldy Of Kurbanovicha Kyarizova Inform CAO 5/1999

Turkmen Alabai

(materials of the expedition for the study of Turkmen dogs)

It is necessary to consider menacing position of Turkmen Alabai in Turkmenistan. Work on their cultivation is absolutely absent. At the same time many dogs are killed and skinned. Usually best, largest dogs possessing the big, good skin used. Almost all dogs of Tedzhen and small vilages adjoining to them and collective farms are shot down by "hunters". Good dogs were kept only in the remote village. The population had always a lot of dogs and rigidly adjusted them a livestock, remains absolutely without dogs. In separate cattle-breeding village there were 1-2 dogs who are absolutely not providing protection of herds. Wolves tear sheep's among an village. In area of Kushka and settlements of immigrants, dogs almost not present. In settlement Morgunovsk there are good dogs owned by Turkmens-sheep breeders living on suburb, but in very limited quantity. Settlements are littered by not purebred "Russian" dogs. Chimin-Abid is a small village of Murgabsk branch. Local residents have some dogs. In Tash-Kepri and the villages near to it their is not enough of dogs,the once they have-bad qualities. The livestock is concentrated in Saradzhinovsk farm which flocks are grazed in mountains. Murghab there is a nursery of dogs. The nursery has no constructions: dogs are adhered to trees, and puppies live in holes, in the ground. Dogs in nursery are very low-grade. Turkmen breeding dogs only three, other are mutts. The young growth of 7-8 months is brought up on a circuit, have no nicknames. Any works with dogs it is not conducted. Puppies of 2 months are skinny, exhausted.

Enough of high quality dogs is available in state farm Geok-Tepe.There were cases of education from one dam to 12 puppies and still strong, well developed. In state farm construction of nursery for Turkmen Alabai is planned, the place is chosen and breeding dogs are allocated. Both in small villages, and in flocks the dogs are keep in freedom. On a circuit there are only exclusively malicious, dangerous to people, dogs. Any certain diet for dogs is not present. Dogs are fed mainly with leftovers, occasionally the flour is given in a dry form or in the form of a soup. Besides dogs eat mice, ground squearls and other living creatures abounding in area. Despite of advantage by the Turkmen Alabai which is given for facilities, the attitude of the population to them is obviously indifferent. Dogs of a different breed serving, mainly for sports bents of owners, have significant attention, live inside with the owner,they are constantly covered by a body cloth so they don't freeze in cold nights and dont suffer from heat in the afternoon, well fed, and the true watchman of property the Turkmen Alabai at the best uses a shadow of the home,the most part of the life spending around sheep's, protecting them from predators.

They feed dog in the flock just as in the village. But around here more gophers and mice; therefore in spite of more difficult and more agitated work, dogs in the flocks are better fed and stronger. Also there is no special accommodation for the puppies. After mother's milk the puppy obtains meat soup with the flour and raw meat. From the 2-3- monthl age the puppy begins to catch mice and eat leftovers. Training of puppies is absent: they grow by themselves and they grow with well developed backbone and musculature without any signs of rachitis, which originates from abundance of the sunlight.


The selection of producers does not exist - usually it occurs free coupling without any interference of masters, which leads to the large incest. The dam digs a burrow in the sand, near the house of the owner, where she gives birth to puppies. Usually born from 4 to 12 puppies.The female pups destroyed, males are given out to the neighbors. Turkmen Alabai dog has a reputation as a very good watchman and wolfhound, and to get the puppies Turkmen's travel from many kilometers away.The destruction of female pups is caused, mainly, by the economic considerations: it's impossible for a poor man to have several dogs, when female is pregnant, she does not work for a while. In the past time the females were kept mainly in prosperous population. Females were rarely kept in the field with sheep's. Meanwhile in the opinion of old experienced shepherds, the female is not only works as good, but they are frequently better than males, since they are more sensitive, mobile and don't run away from the flock. In addition to this the females transfer their habit better to the youngsters. They are inferior in the militant struggle with the wolf, where males, being rather more malicious and more pugnacious, gain victory.There is an opinion that the females with their smell attract the herd of wolves and what is completely probable. However, the couplings of dogs with the wolves or hybrids from them no one remembers and does not know about.

The use

collarTurkmen dogs, mainly used for the protection of sheep herds from the wolves. Despite of the huge damage, in Turkmenia by wolves, decisive measures for dealing with them is not conducted; shepherds do not even have guns. With the attack on the herd the wolf always goes from the side opposite to man. Therefore even having a gun, it cannot be shot, since between the wolf and the shepherd - agitating and beaten mass of sheep. By only means of the protection of herds under these conditions is Alabai dog, that warns the attack of wolf on the sheep. The attacks of wolves on the flock occur each night. Single attacks on the flocks, where there are good dogs, do not succeed. They showed us dogs that face to face destroyed wolves. Therefore more frequent, several wolves make the attack. In this case they come running to the fraud: one wolf howls, being dragged along on the sand and attracting attention of the dogs to him self, that are usually rushed after him, at this time other wolves attack the flock. The dogs, that guessed this tactics of wolves, are not encountered. The only method of rescuing the herd in these cases - is by screams to return the dogs, which usually is done, or to hold the dogs on the leash.There is no special instruction of dogs of any kind in guard and herdsman service. Puppy, imitating the mother and adult dogs, learns everything himself, beginning from the catching of mice and ending with the wolf fight. The behavior of the dogs seem sluggish, not paying attention to their surroundings. But in reality they are extremely sensitive are careful and they rapidly react to the appearance of outside smells and noise. Driving up to the flock, which is located in the mountains, I repeatedly saw a dog standing far away confronting and observing after them. Best method to find flock in the sands - is to howl as a wolf: dogs will respond. Youngsters are more active and faster than adult dogs. Puppies 3-month keep awake entire night, and they react by barking to any noise and rustle in the sands. However, only adult dogs act for sure.The rare appearance of man in the sands, a certain fear of dogs explains by the fact that usually the dogs in the flocks, being very distrustful, do not rush to the man, but the dogs of villages are are very dangerous for the passing strange people, they frequently drag them from the horse or donkey.

The majority of dog have cut ears and tails. Reasons for cutting is difficult to explain. But it is clear that here is no serious need of any kind for this. Shepherds give these explanations: ears cut, so that the sheep would not confuse dogs with the wolf; dog with the cut ears hears better ; tail is cut so that the dog would be more evil. Cutting is done sufficiently simply: tail is cut when puppy opens his eyes, ears - on 3 month of life, taking into account the replacement of teeth. The length of cutting tail and form of cutting is different. We indicated that no training of dogs is carried out. But nevertheless several basic commands, with the aid of which they govern dogs, are present. Each dog bears the nickname, which characterizes, mainly, its color or any signs. Nicknames, on the whole, are very monotonous: white dogs are called [Ak]- bey, yellow - [Kzyl]- bey, etc. Frequently encountered nicknames :[gez], which indicates “black-eyed” and so forth. Nickname dog in the majority knows weakly and it reacts better to different cries or whistle. All dogs usually run to the whistle or the shout, and this completely fine with the shepherds, since there is no need for specific dog. There is a command, which pricks up dog ears. The dog rapidly jumps up on this command, which is given low and by that resembling the sound “of [tss]”, with the barking it runs to the nearest knoll and begins to become accustomed to the smell and watches out. There is a forbidding command: “Kit”, which in the transfer means “[Get Out]”. The forbidding command is carried out by dogs very well; to the sharp cry of shepherd they cease barking and return to their places.

It is possible to be convinced that the difficulty of mastering different methods of training by Turkmen dogs, which encountered the school of dog breeding Narkomsovkhozovin in the past year, explained by the absence of connection and contact with the man from the youngest age, since man actually does not participate in the training of his dog, only throws him food and allowed him to be located nearby. 
Looking at the puppies,their behavior and their attachment to the man, which with the age are more independent and confident in their forces they need man less, they prefer only to be located near him and to follow him, it seems that with appropriate educational work from the Turkmen Alabais is possible to grow dogs successfully suitable not only for the guard, but also for the sheep service.

“Official dog breeding” (№ 1, 1935, [OSOAVIKHIM] USSR)

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Alabai in it's native land

Having been working in expeditions in Turkmenistan since 1946, I watched the way of living of local dos called there Alabai. As the archaeological camps were situated both near the settlements and wells in the desert-and-steppe area, these observations and the contacts with the dogs as well have been taking place for a long time.The habitat of Alabai is not enclosed, cause the traditional Turkmenian settlement has no fenced yards, and the dogs walk quite free in the territory. The guarding function is of high priority here, especially when the dark comes. I know it by the time spent in the camp: we had the CAOs , and when the dark came, they began to bark at everybody who walked in the territory. Very often in the settlements they leave children, even infants, with the dogs. These dogs treat children kindly and guard them from snakes, for instance. Turkmenian Ovcharka, just like some aboriginal cats, can smell snakes, and if there are tracks of other dogs or cats, you will be safe from snakes. In the desert-and-steppe area the dogs should bear two main functions - to protect and guard the herds and owner's property as well. It is genetically conditioned. I brought a puppy to Saint Petersburg, and when it became adult and came to the Baltic republic, it saw the sheep flock and started to guard it. Guarding the camp in Turkmenia, this dog, probably, was not at ease because of lack of the sheep, and when we brought sheep clothing for the experiments, it immediately began to guard them. The mother lactates the puppies till one-month age, and then they go to guard the sheep flocks together with the adult dogs that teach the puppies to guard. My puppy hasn't got such experience, however, genetically it felt that it must guard, but didn't know how to do it.

The guarding function is carried out perfectly by the taught dogs. A herdsman and I are sitting and having tea, and a dog is watching the sheep that is at the pond. A dog determines the size of drinking bowl where twenty sheep can come up to, runs through the herd with lightning speed, separates this twenty, bark at the rest that can hinder and drives a group to a drinking bowl. When some of the sheep stays longer at a drinking bowl, a dog hurries it. Gradually the whole herd flocks together on the other side of a drinking bowl. Approximately three - four dogs can watch the herds including up to 1000 sheep, and even a boy can be a herdsman driving a bicycle and doing everything he wants. The dogs will do everything by themselves. Thus, the life rate of a dog is very rigorous. They drink extremely little. The dogs brought to Saint Petersburg keep to the same habits. They eat a little one time a day - in the evening, when a herd is lodging for the night. Every dog was given 30 kg of flour a month. The herdsmen very often were lazy to bake flat cakes for the dogs and threw them the dough pieces. Turkmen say, " We feed them with the dry flat cakes and can't stop surprising why the dogs are so large". Protecting from the wolves is also the function the CAO should bear. That's why the puppies are docked and cropped, very often they do it with a knife putting a puppy on a stone, hoping that a mother will lick the wounds. When a herd is lodging for the night, the males are put along the edges of a herd and bitch is put on the most distant place. She, a potential mother, will be the first to get anxious, and then the males will come. The fighting qualities are worked out early: While playing, the puppies snap a partner at the front foot to bite it through then and put an opponent on three feet. The Turkmenian desert wolves are not very large and as the herdsmen say, "a clever dog is able to cope with two wolves". The wolves and jackals know it well and go round our camp, howling from afar, and having made sure that a dog isn't on a leash, skirt a herd

The third environment is a city, it is less natural. The yards are fenced, and very often a dog is on a leash. Since the 80-s the dog fighting's have been held in Ashkhabad, somewhere in the suburbs.This breed is very ancient. Judging by the excavations, it exists since IV century B. C. When excavations of Altyn-depe, the ancient town of the Bronze Age (the end of III - the beginning of II century B. C.), they found the clay dog figurines with the cropped ears and docked tails. Fine pictures of such dogs are engraved on a silver cup belonging to those times, the cup was found in Northern Afghanistan and it is kept in Louver now. A master, a herdsman, a servant-boy and the dogs going in three lines are pictured there. The necessity of surviving in the extreme conditions made the dogs very adaptable. They try to defecate somewhere in the bushes in order not a trace could remain. The puppies are quiet, those who squeaked were taken by the jackals, when their mother went somewhere. The bitches are very strict with the puppies: they trample them or lie upon them, and those who die - are not a wolf-hound. We took with us a mother and two- month puppy to the Baltic republics. The mother was treating her puppy very strictly: threw him from a slope, jumped on him pressing to the ground. The herdsmen don't like the dogs that bite to blood, cause a dog must only snap slightly. Sometimes to exclude the aggressive dogs they shoot a dog that bites to blood before other dogs. This adaptability is very useful in the city conditions. Even adult dogs quickly get used to a lift or to the trains. They simply snap at dog that tries to pick a quarrel. In the urban conditions they naturally take up guarding of their owners and their property. Just like Turkmenian, these dogs don't like people walking in the nights, as they consider that at night people should stay at home. In such a vast area the local variants are possible. For instance, Turkmenian dogs are lighter than the mountain, Kirghiz, ones. Their pace is light, otherwise it would be difficult to move on the sand. In Central and Northern Kazakhstan where the large wolves lived, there also were the large Ovcharkas. People even called them "Kazakh Saint Bernards". I'm not sure that they are not cross-bred now. Turkmenian herdsmen keep watch on the breed. The old men remember the matches, names and color of the main stud dogs. They try to breed good puppies. When I got the first puppy, I asked about his genealogy, and they recalled many things including the famous wolf-hound whose barking the wolves were afraid of. The old men say, "He was old already, and people moved with him on a camel, and he needed only to bark and the predators knew who came".

Amiet. L'age des jchanges inter-iraniens 3500-1700 avant J.C. Paris. 1986. fig. 201. Member of the Academy of Science of Turkmenistan, professor V. Masson May 20, 1998 L. Dmitriev-Kavkazskiy. All Over Central Asia. Notes of a Painter. Saint Petersburg, 1824. Chapter "Chardzhuy. Between the Satras". page18"The dogs are strange here: huge, terrible, but they are indifferent to the passers-by and don't bark without necessity. If you meet such a dog, it will squint at you, growl and slide quietly somewhere in the shade.

"Inform CAO" magazine N1, 5.

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