"Asian", "Alabai", " the Central Asian sheep-dog "
Under these names ,we have got used to perceive the breed of these dogs, which have been taken out once from far Central Asia. Unfortunately, the name fixed by the standard creates incorrect representation about breed. Among experts disputes do not cease: whether to consider in general the Central Asian sheep-dog as breed or group of breeds which the Soviet cynologists have precipitately united once in one. In fact in each country or even the separate district entering into Average (Central) Asia, the dogs helping shepherds to protect a flock, know at all under a name " the Central Asian sheep-dog ". In Kirghizia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan e.t.c. But the one who saw these dogs in places of their prime dwelling, never will confuse "Turkmen" and "Tadjik". If to explain accessible language is as for us Japanese and Chinese on one person though the difference is obvious to them. We just wish to acquaint the reader with one of these breeds, namely Turkmen Alabai or as it still often name on its direct applicability, a Turkmen wolfhound. In Turkmenistan Alabai is declared as national property and it is forbidden to export from the country.By the order of the government for Turkmen TV recently made a film about these dogs. Turkmen's are proud of Good Alabai, as they are proud of their stallions, and never for any money will not sell to a stranger.This ancient breed which has kept the shape practically constant up to now, the proud sight, executed wisdom. In it there is nothing artificial, created by the person to please to a fashion. It - embodiment of the Force, capable to resist to a severe reality of a life.
Therefore a word "sheep-dog" radically incorrect: it is not a dog living with sheep flock and guards the sheep on a command of the shepherd. He/she is a wolfhound, dog, independently making the decision, capable to drive away wolves, to protect the owner and his property. The main criterion of selection skill is to conduct fights for dogs if the dog is not capable to stand up for itself , then it has no right to be a flock protector - and and this understanding in Turkmenistan still stands . In Turkmenistan tests fights are done each year, the best Alabai dogs from different corners of the country brought there. Who saw these tournaments, will agree, that they cardinally differ from so-called " the dog fights ". It is more likely similar to a knightly duel or fighting dance where wins strong spirit. Such rigid selection during many generations and daily struggle for a survival promoted creation of that courageous and legendary shape of Alabai which we see today. By new paragraph are entered in history and family trees of many dogs, names of champions Turkmenistan on fights: Kara Kele, White and Black Ekemen, the Polar bear, Акusha, etc. The huge pleasure is delivered when one has contact with these dogs. Each time you learn something new of their mysterious "Asian" soul, being amazed with their remarkable intelligence. Ability to be content, ability to withstand heat and a cold, quickly adapt in various conditions, and also the sound health and the counterbalanced character is only a little bit of those qualities which can win your heart. But it is necessary to remember, that strong do not suffer weakness.
Therefore we never shall recommend to get a wolfhound to diffident people, elderly or to children as a dog-partner.
The soldier cannot be babysitter. It demands a firm hand and strong will. Only equal or stronger spirit can estimate all beauty and power of this ancient breed.
Magazine " Your dog business ",
№61,2005 ., Page.23-27
Paul Leshchineky: What is your impressions about exhibition ЕСВВ
Farida Bolkunova: Each exhibition is an
event for me. Though I many years work as the expert, each arrival
to Ukraine opens something new. It would be desirable to note, that
I judged rings in many cities, but last exhibition ЕСВВ in Kiev,
undoubtedly, has left the strongest both indelible impression! And
the most important, that Ukrainian breeders become on a proper way
of progress of a Turkmen wolfhound...
P.L.: What does the proper way of progress of
this dog mean?
F.B.: It is a harmonious way of
development - both the ex-terrier, and working qualities, and
behavioral functions. The first places magnificent animals which
corresponded to type, have borrowed constitutions, to behavior. All
it testifies to harmony of a dog, and I have been pleasantly
surprised, that now in Ukraine there were so many good
P.L.: What do you tell about the organization
of an exhibition?
F.B.: the Exhibition in which participated over
hundred fifty wolfhounds, has been organized reasonably well and at
a high professional level. Original "highlight" of an exhibition
became concept of customs of Turkmen people. In ring specially
designed to such show shepherds (the young actors changed clothes
for national clothes - Nikita Arhiereev and Denis Leschinsky)
started up dogs in an indicative duel! For many attendees this
testing was the first acquaintance to wolfhounds what they are (by
the way, surprisingly precise name to it show organizers
"VOLKODAV-2004") have thought up. I, certainly, have with the great
pleasure agreed to comment on an event in a ring, trying as it is
possible to stop in greater detail on descriptions of traditions,
including " the dog fights ", clothes, etc. In general it is
convinced, that knowledge of a dog should begin with studying
customs and customs of that people, whence there is a dog. When for
the person people, its originality, its shower if it is possible so
to be expressed then it is capable to understand how it, i.e. people
opens, communicates and copes with animals, what features of its
managing. The only way it is possible to understand
character of a dog, to learn to address with it!
P.L.: You have mentioned pedigree testing
wolfhounds. Such duels are how much necessary, whether is valid they
are safe for dogs - your opinion?
F.B.: You have outstripped me, I
just intended to pass to conversation on pedigree testing.
Certainly, and, first of all, is a centuries-old tradition of
Turkmen people. Very good word - "testing" which full enough
displays an essence of it zoothechnical actions - checks of nervous
system of dogs is found, in my opinion. In Turkmenistan it name "
the dog fights ". Fights present sharply differ from fights of the
past. Basically the shepherds who are an expert in dogs earlier
gathered, is thin wolfhounds understanding character. And nowadays
people rather far from Shepard trades pitted dogs. Therefore
all more often on fights is present only passion and a victory at
any cost. It is no wonder, that the world community tries to forbid
similar shows. No, it is necessary to follow ancient
P.L.: Why shepherds pitted dogs?
F.B.: Yes ,because to check
nervous system. The skilled eye of the shepherd noticed all merits
and demerits of a wolfhound during a duel. On fights the shepherd
made the choice - whether it is possible to take this or that dog
with itself in a floor for work for protection of the flock.
Without such check of dogs on "professional usefulness" work and a
life in a flock is inconceivable. A dog - eyes and ears of the
shepherd, but not only it was important for the Turkmen. The main
thing is, what kind of heart this dog has!
P.L.: Explain more in detail, what it
F.B.: With us it happens this
way, that the small or fine dog will fight before loss of the life
only to protect the person. But together with it such concept, as
the ex-terrier comes. I.e. if the dog has the big heart, strong
spirit, but thus it is fine, small or has any errors in the
ex-terrier, it will be more difficult to it to work in a flock, to
go for it (for example, wrong front and rear legs
complicates movement) The Dog should have good legs to keep up
with a flock. But thus there is no necessity to force to run a dog
improbable distances - up to twenty-thirty kilometers. Being in a
working zone, it never runs on such distances, and basically lays.
Only a minute of danger the wolfhound "blows up" and runs gallop.
Runs on the wolf or the jackal to drive away it and at once to
return on the place. The wolfhound absolutely does not have business
up to this wolf, it is important to banish only it from the ""
territory. Sometimes for such behavior of Alabai's , joking,
call "wolf-chasers".You imagine, how the loaded dog, i.e. with very
powerful skeleton, paws 17-17.5 centimeters, heavy muscles can "blow
up"? What can it do in the field? -NOTHING! It will not run ten
meters! No, good skeleton is necessary to certainly, Turkmen
wolfhound, but thus the "dry" not loaded muscles! You know,
why these dogs attract people involved they
are honest, incorruptible, fair and noble! Force and courage
of wolfhounds bribe the greatness! These qualities unmatched
with dogs of other breeds! Testing it is necessary for the sake of
preservation of instincts. Protection of the territory, service to
the PERSON - isn't it enough of motivation for a
P.L.: By the way, about motivation of dogs
F.B.: I already spoke about it . The motivation
is a preservation, fastening of instincts, namely:- First,
protection of the territory;- Secondly, the raised malice to
predators and to similar, at the same time, full absence those in
relation to the person. In the third, by virtue of the intelligence,
yes-yes intelligence, understanding of a wolfhound of
that testing is only has sports character! For
example, fights with their own kind in a court yard are
battles for " a place under the sun ". They more disputed, spiteful
and uncompromising! So it is impossible to suppose, that dogs
fought in a court yard (apply the separate maintenance,
walk them at various times day, etc.). Antoine De Sent
Ekzuperi has written once: " We in the answer for those whom
have tamed ". If you have tamed our dogs, methods and rules of
cultivation, training and testing of these dogs should pass how it
is done at us. Let today the wolfhound at you protects the house and
a court yard, but to train it as the murderer - criminally so - it
is inadmissible! Education of the aggressive attitude to the person
leads to pitiable results - dogs, as a rule, turn against owners!
P.L.: And how then to train a
F.B.:This dog - territorial, you
want it or not. If it ten days will be fed on the same territories,
eventually, will understand, that it and is its house. In this case
a wolfhound it is obligatory can and begins to protect it without
any training. In Turkmenistan we do not train dogs, but
they superbly protect territory! Try somebody to get into my
court yard... I did not train the dog, but in fact it loves me, my
family, my house and my court yard loves. It lives in this court
yard, at last, and therefore will always protect it!
P L.: How then it should react towards total
the person it should not be such spiteful though in the potential it
is a spiteful dog.
Turkmen's who conducted a nomadic way of
life, had no limited spaces - court yard, and displayed the tents
among plains directly open-air. Dogs marked the territory and did
not start up there strangers! At the same time people could move
freely. To the person was to vote enough, that the dog has learned,
that it is the neighbor, and, fence, it is not necessary to
bark and furthermore to attack.
P.L.: You often speak about a Turkmen wolfhound as
about an essence reasonable? Whether there were in your life cases
which would confirm this idea?
FB.: This breed is
extremely intellectual and do not trust those who speaks,that it
can be trained easily and simply. The dog in Turkmenistan
lives near to the person, and its life proceeds at very poor
dialogue with it. The mistress has left in a court yard, has
submitted meal... The Dog is very grateful for it. It goes to the
mistress, low having lowered a head, wagging all body, as though
showing the kind, how much it is grateful to the mistress. And that
even can not look at it! The Some people accept such behavior
of an animal for humiliation... But I consider, that this dog loves
immensely the owner, honors the person for all and on a life
will be to it grateful Wolfhounds in Turkmenistan to
occur in a court yard. Owners do not have such habit, as combing and
a hairstyle of dogs, tender petting and hugging , and,
especially, kissing the favorites. At us such is not present.
At the same time, there is no also another - the humiliating
attitude to a dog. Anybody and never will tell anything bad about it
- be itself Ак-Gush, any domestic or flock a dog. I had such
case - One time one of my bitches was giving birth . They were
very heavy and proceeded already about two day! I was strongly
exhausted and have invited in the help "human" gynecologist
which has put it a dropper and in general - was accepted to business
with professional determination. At Mohammed Sajunova (so called the
doctor) all has really left well. Soon I have heard, as it has said:
" It has given birth to last puppy! " It is necessary to tell, that
this dog to me was extremely dear is mine Акbay ,my
favorite Babasya !I experienced nerves as if
my daughter gave birth. Therefore, when the doctor so has told,
there has come any relaxation or still something - not known, at me
the head (health at me not absolutely excellent) has begun to spin
and, having lost consciousness, I have crashed down on a floor
directly under a chair! Except for the doctor in the house there was
my sister Lilja and the working woman of club Galina. They have
instantly rushed to me. But before them, having thrown the newborn
children, having dumped from itself a dropper, has rushed to me...
Mine Аkbay! Then they told me (as I have told you - I
was without consciousness), that when Аkbay have run up to me,
it has begun to roar on them , having stopped them ,then began to
lick my face. It did not help, and I still laid motionlessly. Then
she began to bite slightly my cheeks , and... I have regained
consciousness! Gradually began to come to the senses. Having seen
that , I have started talking: " Akbaushka , leave, what you want? "
I don't not understand, what occurs, I am in such
And I Акbay, having convinced, apparently, that with me all ok ,
instantly became mild and has escaped to the puppies . Having
returned to puppies, she began to lick carefully them, has
accurately laid down on a place. Only after that both the doctor,
and my sister, and Galina could approach to me for first-aid
treatment (as it has appeared, at me has sharply risen pressure).
When they told all that ... (Here Farida has
sharply broken off, as if something has got
stuck in her throat. Tears dimmed eyes. We sat silently
and motionlessly, trying to not look at each other.
Then, suddenly, having made a deep and heavy sigh, it has
continued). Basically she has brought me back and, has
probably rescued my life. Many years have passed ,
but I cannot recollect this case without tears.
Other case. Before a trip to Ukraine Ак-Gush overate
on bones ("kind" people have thrown through a fence when the
Gipsy - owner Ak-Gusha - was not the at home) and at it in
intestines stones were formed. Well here, we come to Donetsk. It is
necessary to tell, that a dog had bleeding for two
days and there was no possibility to get him to help. In
such condition Ак-Gush spends the hardest duel with local
Estuary (eyewitnesses remember, that then only because of a trauma
the Estuary has not left on the second round). During the test all
shouted: " Blood! Blood! " Blood flew from anal opening , and
Ак-Gush from time to time sat down, as he wished to
descend in a toilet. During any moment it with such entreaty has
looked to me in eyes, that it seemed to me, I hear its request. I
speak: " It hesitates to descend to the toilet, because
he is not alone here ! It is a shame to him ! " And people don't
believe me , do not understand, that these dogs know, that such it
is a shame. When the doctor has come and without a muzzle could
assist him , everyone have been simply amazed. I after such cases
think, that if there is a resurrection after life of souls
these dogs necessarily become people.
P.L.: In conclusion, what would you like to
wish our readers?
F.B.: First of all I would like to wish magazine of a recumbent that the
circle of the interested readers extended that it has left in
weights, it first. Secondly, it would be desirable "DB" to see on
pages of even more clauses about wolfhounds and whenever possible
more information from the countries of dwelling of these dogs, i.e.
Turkmenistan , Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia and
Tajikistan. I believe that you should receive knowledge
from primary sources if, certainly, really wish to learn all about
WOLFHOUNDS and WHO THEY Really
F.I.Bolkunovoj's exclusive interview to magazine "
ASKA", given after a mono pedigree exhibition in Sergiev Posad
where Farida Ismailovna examined dogs of breed Central Asian
Igor Semenov: Farida, I would
like to learn all over again when you were going to go to Russia,
your sensations, what you waited for?
F.B.:The basic purpose from which I went to
Russia – not distribution of prizes. It was interesting to me to
examine a livestock and to note good dogs for cultivation.
Certainly, I understand, that this exhibition, maybe, will not be
reflected in any way in breeding cultivation because a number of
other exhibitions will be covered there and then with its results,
and dogs all the same will receive the "Perfect". Nevertheless, I
hoped, that probably I will manage to shift any stone. With such
ideas I also went here. The Most important – I wished to state the
point of view to what it is necessary to endeavor that is necessary
for breed and as it is better for making. Therefore I was ready to a
uncooperative altitude to myself. But it is ready and to that I
shall try something to make for breed. With such ideas I came
to Russian exhibition.
I.S..: What your impression about a livestock
which you have seen at an exhibition?
F.B.: The Livestock so polytypic! About some
dogs it's difficult to tell, whether they concern to one breed. I.e.
such differential types of dogs in breed suggests that not
everything is all right with cultivation. On the other hand, it is
pleasant, that many owners of nurseries by themselves in the small
facilities create a good livestock of the same dogs. Preparing
I have decided for myself , that I shall rigidly judge
male dogs and not so rigid, more loyally, -bitches . Why?
I shall share the reasons, though I do not think, that
everyone will run and will start to do how I want them to do. I
consider, that to a dog of the requirement should be shown very
rigid. At the same time bitches is simply typical «Asiatochka»,
that can give a good livestock. From these reasons I am
very strictly judgmental to males and much softer to
bitches. And still I wish to tell, that when you put a dog on
the first place and you give KCHK, SS and so forth he or she
should be a magnificent dog with all pedigree attributes.
Magnificent head, general harmony, and such, would seem "fine"
pedigree attributes, on which many very often at all do not pay
attention - correctly planted ears, a good lip, powerful nose
bridge, fullness under eyes, a powerful bottom jaw, construction of
a shoulder, movement. I.S.: Now it would be desirable to clear a
situation that has occurred at an exhibition ?
I.S.: Now it would be desirable to clear a
situation that has occurred at an exhibition
F.B.: Igor, I tell you
this: I am the person without claims. I bear the faith on
"Asians" and I bear it … People want – listen, do not want – do not
listen. It is impossible to force something to impose to the person.
When I worked in a ring I saw, how many looked at me,
photographed me. For example, on one dog I showed, what
type of lip should be. On her upper lip looked like a
"pancake". I have tightened it, characteristic "pocket" for the
Central Asian sheep-dog was formed. So even T.M. Ivanov began to
remove it there and then. I.e. people like to receive the
information, it is interesting to people – no one ever
gave them such information. People like to receive
information, they want to be educated. Who wants to listen, will
listen without any ambitions ,others will say "Who is Farida
anyway, some village lady, what does she know anyway?" So the only
thing I may say to The others – accept me , as you want! But I wish
to say, that no one should never threaten me, I was never
afraid of nobody, and I never be afraid of nobody. I am afraid
only of the God. The rest to me is not terrible. What can you do to
me? Kill me? Then kill. Beat me up? I shall
I.S.: What would you like to
tell those people, that come to the exhibitions and love these dogs
as much as you do, they have their own love for these dogs, maybe
they don't know or don't understand as much, but they are
F.B.: The expert – does not mean yet
the professional because and among experts there are a lot of
layman's. They have created to themselves a speculative image of a
dog and follow it. But in fact it is necessary to plant a dog not
that which is pleasant to me or someone, and that which corresponds
to the standard. And still, more than to the standard – work. I.e.
all is explainable. For example, I was at exhibition as
the spectator, an the expert that was standing next to me said: « I
like thin lip in a bitch ». It's like stroked me
on the head:« You the expert! The expert who judges all
breeds, and you saying that? » It was terrible to hear
that. What difference does it make that YOU like a
thin lip? Perhaps, you will cut out lips in general , maybe
you in general like a dog with a grin ? But in fact the lip is
very important at work. If it will be a thin lip , moreover hanging
down downwards and if this dog will start to fight with the wolf
(and as they fight with wolves, with jackals, with hyenas) such lip
will be constantly bitten by a canine. Such dog cannot work.
Make a conclusion, it not because I like a thick dense lip. Simply
such it is necessary for a dog. Why I speak, what greater ear bowls
are inconvenient? Because, the wind which overtakes huge barchans,
will blow sand in these ears. It is not necessary to cut
hair on ears – they too protect a dog from the same sand. Why the
dog should have small eyes, instead of protruding ? Besides owing to
an indispensability. The powerful bottom jaw is indispensable at
struggle. Why angles as in the German
shepherd are not necessary ? Because the dog with such angles
cannot work, it will constantly sit down. Why the short, strong
waist is necessary to a dog? Because the dog with an aspen
waist cannot work and pull the opponent out during a duel with whole
body. Any of the Asian exteriors has a rational
explanation. I speak about it already for many years, but only the
few seriously pay attention to that. To get a dog
snub-nosed with bulging eyes full of the blood, the drooped
centuries and enormous auricles much easier and to explain to
everything, that it is remarkable, as a head of its enormous volume.
So is much easier! You think, I it have guessed all? No, it is
necessary to study. To study constantly! Yes, I read the
literature, I make conclusions, but I learn much from people, from
dog breeders. I often go on flocks. And constantly I study. Why the
dog should have a deep thorax, moreover and long. Yes because in
such thorax there should be a place for the volumetric lungs
necessary for a dog for normal breath during fight. Or how the dog
does grip? If the dog takes grip a full mouth to it often happens
difficultly to breathe, therefore many dogs take "sideways", i.e.
one party, and with opposite open that "pocket" about which I spoke
above and breathe. And present, if the lip long and hanging down the
pocket is not present and to breathe begins much more difficultly.
Once again I shall repeat: in this dog all is functional. It is
just necessary, loving this breed to think and comprehend,
what for I plant to do with this breed. Some people only
concerned on receiving: the first place, CAC, CACIB, КCHК, the
champion … … and «Big Bucks» And that's all. As it is
impossible to treat this dog like that ! Just , think,
what for does it exist in this world? Not for the same
that KCHK you to earn, but for work! I do not speak about
fights, - even for protection of a court yard the good working dog
harmoniously combining mentality and the ex-terrier is
I.S.: Are you going to lead an
exhibition again? And how much it is necessary?
F.B.: It is necessary. But,
unfortunately, we had the chief of club a person who now, as a
matter of fact, does not work, and sits under authority of high
ranks. Therefore all has decayed. But we hope for acts of the
new President. He/she is very reasonable person.
I.S.: Big thanks
F.B.: You are welcome, it's really not a big
deal. I only hope this will help people to understand more.
THE TESTS OF WOLFHOUNDS ARE THEY
NECESSARY FOR THE SELECTION ?
(from the interview Of Geldy Kurbanovicha Kyarizova)
- Combat of
wolfhounds… For what reason they test these beautiful and
strong dogs,many ask. So is it really necessary these
struggles in our industrial century? Aren't we
cultivating cruelty, which we have as is
in life, and on the television screens. Lets protect
these thoroughbred dogs from the every kind of troubles . Thus, we
will preserve present Turkmen sheep dog… Is it possible to agree
with this opinion? Whether that is correct, with respect to
Turkmen wolfhound? What it nevertheless must be? You are dog
specialist, the judge of international category. How you will answer
- The dog, not capable of stand for itself, does not have
the right to be with the flock- it was thought this way by
Turkmenian shepherds and still is. Many hundreds years Garagumov
herdsmen conduct the selection of wolfhounds for the protection of
flock, at first glance it is strange and severe manner -
pitting them. Tests are usually carried out by spring
and in autumn during hair-cutting of sheep and they are not simply
entertainment in the lonely life of shepherd, but by main component
in the selection of the animals, that are used for the protection of
cattle from the predators. This selective work on the species of
dogs during many centuries made it possible to create large and
courageous dog - medzhek-iti. Turkmen wolfhound cannot be
confused with any other dog. Neither German sheep dog nor
Australian collie nor Hungarian of bullet cannot protect flock. With
its entire devotion to man at the sight of wolf in these
thoroughbred animals operates the instinct of self-preservation, to
them simply is not sufficient courage to join the battle with the
predator. Certainly, sheep dog - is the qualified herds boy, the
assistant of man with the flock, but protect sheep at night can only
one dog - wolfhound. He is a soldier, ready to give
his life for the protection of a flock, without
considering, rushes across to predator. Therefore medzhek-iti
go either in front of the sheep, cleaning the way, or from
behind, guarding rears. All, what is required from them, to
protect not only flock, but first of all itself. Therefore it
is incorrect to call Turkmen wolfhounds only sheep dogs.
The labor of shepherd is hard and dangerous. And he cannot allow him
self this luxury - to convey for many kilometers products for
the excess dogs. To him it's not necessary to have tens of
light, mobile, but powerless before the wolf animals. Sufficient to
have two-three large and powerful wolfhounds, capable of
killing enemy, and it is not necessary to have helicopters,
automobiles, motorcycles in order to destroy wolves.
There is no necessary of the expensive sheep pens in order
to hide the frightened sheep in them. Thus it continued for
centuries. However, with the arrival to the territory of
Turkmenistan of other cultures, with a change in the view on nature
and ecology, concepts and age-old traditions of people with respect
to how t selection must pass , medzhek-iti were driven away.
They began to call wolfhound sheep dog. The scientists, who
introduced the exterior standards to the species, which correspond
to the more tested European models, appeared. Our wolfhound, that
was bread in the European part of the former USSR, and on the
appearance began more to resemble the sheep dog, and since the
exterior changed, functional possibilities of dog had changed,
this led to a change in the nature of the individual representatives
of species. Our breeding stock from different cities of the former
USSR bred so many similar dog and so many sold them out of the
country, these dogs strongly discredited the species. Today
some dog activists already talk about rescuing and protection
of wolfhound from the cruelty, by which, it is said, are accompanied
Testing Of Volkodavs. But it seems to us, that it is, on the
contrary, necessary to protect species from „the rescuers “,
to convert courageous soldier into the living soft and
good-natured toy. Furthermore, it is necessary to regulate sale and
removal of wolfhounds beyond the limits of Turkmenistan. The fact is
that from many regions, and in particular from the fog, Tagtabazara
abroad contraband are exported the best representatives of species.
Thus we lost in fact stolen from Tedzhena - Gaplana, from the fog -
Apachi, from Tagtabazara - Mukhtara By main condition for
propagation and retaining the species of the dogs of is creation in
each city of rings for testing and the development of the champions
of species. We devise nothing anew. In Turkmenistan there are steps
-Gushgynskiy, Tagtabazarskiy, Kerkinskiy, Sarakhsskiy, Kakinskiy,
Bakherdenskiy, where each inhabitant knew and knows champions
on the ring. They, as a rule, people greatly value these dogs.
Because of The Ashgabatskiy ring were preserved such bright
representatives of species as Black and White Ekemen, Red Ekemen,
Karakelle, Akkus, Tokhmet, Old Elbars, Red Elbars, Goymot, Akella.
For us it is important to grow not simply large and healthy dog.
There are cynological traditions that indices in the
wolfhounds, that exactly as in the work with the sheep dogs, have
their starting points. For the sheep dog, for example, sense
of smell so forth for the Turkmen wolfhound simple
„large evil dog “- not sufficient. For the definition of
pedigree in wolfhound its very importantly, for example how he
grabs wolf enemy. If “grip” not in the region of head
and neck, but in the withers or further - this is already
a deficiency. We say that the dog has „cold mouth
“, i.e., he grabs enemy and releases in order to intercept. We have
Red Elbars. He manages well his whole body. He entered and
withdrew from battle, that there was no even saliva of enemy on him.
There are dogs, which „do not have respiration “. And finally the
most important index - how patient is wolfhound :
it does not squeal after the first bite. Special attention was
always paid to the exterior of dog. When it fought, it was noted,
how good are front and rear extremities, does it have wide
chest, does it have the rigid and correct line of the
top, powerful back, steep edges and long false ribs. Wolfhound must
have strong short neck, the massive heavy head with the smooth
passage from the forehead to the snout, which resembles the head of
polar bear. Naturally, all these qualities of the representative of
species can be noticed only on the ring, but not at night,
when dog is gripped with the wolf. Then it is already late. Soldier
is ready, it is trained or not - will reveal the ring. These are -
place and starting point in the selective estimation of wolfhound.
So lets speak freely : Turkmen wolfhound exists, until there is the
possibility to arrange ring combat. The association created with the
participation of firm will make it possible to combine the people
united in the opinion, what must this species be like and
what it is necessary to do for its retention and
improvement. We intend to create clubs, to conduct the tests
of dogs, to introduce selective selection, to publish the tribal
books. The traditions of our people, which derived dromedary,
Saradzinskiy sheep, borzoi- basins, Iomundskuyu and Aakhaltekinskuyu
species of horses, must not be devoted to oblivion. Our debt to
protect and to increase wealth.
From interview of one of the chief dog
specialists of Turkmenistan Geldy Of Kurbanovicha Kyarizova Inform
(materials of the expedition for the study of Turkmen dogs)
It is necessary to consider menacing position of Turkmen Alabai in Turkmenistan. Work on their cultivation is absolutely absent. At the same time many dogs are killed and skinned. Usually best, largest dogs possessing the big, good skin used. Almost all dogs of Tedzhen and small vilages adjoining to them and collective farms are shot down by "hunters". Good dogs were kept only in the remote village. The population had always a lot of dogs and rigidly adjusted them a livestock, remains absolutely without dogs. In separate cattle-breeding village there were 1-2 dogs who are absolutely not providing protection of herds. Wolves tear sheep's among an village. In area of Kushka and settlements of immigrants, dogs almost not present. In settlement Morgunovsk there are good dogs owned by Turkmens-sheep breeders living on suburb, but in very limited quantity. Settlements are littered by not purebred "Russian" dogs. Chimin-Abid is a small village of Murgabsk branch. Local residents have some dogs. In Tash-Kepri and the villages near to it their is not enough of dogs,the once they have-bad qualities. The livestock is concentrated in Saradzhinovsk farm which flocks are grazed in mountains. Murghab there is a nursery of dogs. The nursery has no constructions: dogs are adhered to trees, and puppies live in holes, in the ground. Dogs in nursery are very low-grade. Turkmen breeding dogs only three, other are mutts. The young growth of 7-8 months is brought up on a circuit, have no nicknames. Any works with dogs it is not conducted. Puppies of 2 months are skinny, exhausted.
Enough of high quality dogs is available in state farm Geok-Tepe.There were cases of education from one dam to 12 puppies and still strong, well developed. In state farm construction of nursery for Turkmen Alabai is planned, the place is chosen and breeding dogs are allocated. Both in small villages, and in flocks the dogs are keep in freedom. On a circuit there are only exclusively malicious, dangerous to people, dogs. Any certain diet for dogs is not present. Dogs are fed mainly with leftovers, occasionally the flour is given in a dry form or in the form of a soup. Besides dogs eat mice, ground squearls and other living creatures abounding in area. Despite of advantage by the Turkmen Alabai which is given for facilities, the attitude of the population to them is obviously indifferent. Dogs of a different breed serving, mainly for sports bents of owners, have significant attention, live inside with the owner,they are constantly covered by a body cloth so they don't freeze in cold nights and dont suffer from heat in the afternoon, well fed, and the true watchman of property the Turkmen Alabai at the best uses a shadow of the home,the most part of the life spending around sheep's, protecting them from predators.
They feed dog in the flock just as in the village. But around here more gophers and mice; therefore in spite of more difficult and more agitated work, dogs in the flocks are better fed and stronger. Also there is no special accommodation for the puppies. After mother's milk the puppy obtains meat soup with the flour and raw meat. From the 2-3- monthl age the puppy begins to catch mice and eat leftovers. Training of puppies is absent: they grow by themselves and they grow with well developed backbone and musculature without any signs of rachitis, which originates from abundance of the sunlight.
The selection of producers does not exist - usually it occurs free coupling without any interference of masters, which leads to the large incest. The dam digs a burrow in the sand, near the house of the owner, where she gives birth to puppies. Usually born from 4 to 12 puppies.The female pups destroyed, males are given out to the neighbors. Turkmen Alabai dog has a reputation as a very good watchman and wolfhound, and to get the puppies Turkmen's travel from many kilometers away.The destruction of female pups is caused, mainly, by the economic considerations: it's impossible for a poor man to have several dogs, when female is pregnant, she does not work for a while. In the past time the females were kept mainly in prosperous population. Females were rarely kept in the field with sheep's. Meanwhile in the opinion of old experienced shepherds, the female is not only works as good, but they are frequently better than males, since they are more sensitive, mobile and don't run away from the flock. In addition to this the females transfer their habit better to the youngsters. They are inferior in the militant struggle with the wolf, where males, being rather more malicious and more pugnacious, gain victory.There is an opinion that the females with their smell attract the herd of wolves and what is completely probable. However, the couplings of dogs with the wolves or hybrids from them no one remembers and does not know about.
Turkmen dogs, mainly used for the protection of sheep herds from the wolves. Despite of the huge damage, in Turkmenia by wolves, decisive measures for dealing with them is not conducted; shepherds do not even have guns. With the attack on the herd the wolf always goes from the side opposite to man. Therefore even having a gun, it cannot be shot, since between the wolf and the shepherd - agitating and beaten mass of sheep. By only means of the protection of herds under these conditions is Alabai dog, that warns the attack of wolf on the sheep. The attacks of wolves on the flock occur each night. Single attacks on the flocks, where there are good dogs, do not succeed. They showed us dogs that face to face destroyed wolves. Therefore more frequent, several wolves make the attack. In this case they come running to the fraud: one wolf howls, being dragged along on the sand and attracting attention of the dogs to him self, that are usually rushed after him, at this time other wolves attack the flock. The dogs, that guessed this tactics of wolves, are not encountered. The only method of rescuing the herd in these cases - is by screams to return the dogs, which usually is done, or to hold the dogs on the leash.There is no special instruction of dogs of any kind in guard and herdsman service. Puppy, imitating the mother and adult dogs, learns everything himself, beginning from the catching of mice and ending with the wolf fight. The behavior of the dogs seem sluggish, not paying attention to their surroundings. But in reality they are extremely sensitive are careful and they rapidly react to the appearance of outside smells and noise. Driving up to the flock, which is located in the mountains, I repeatedly saw a dog standing far away confronting and observing after them. Best method to find flock in the sands - is to howl as a wolf: dogs will respond. Youngsters are more active and faster than adult dogs. Puppies 3-month keep awake entire night, and they react by barking to any noise and rustle in the sands. However, only adult dogs act for sure.The rare appearance of man in the sands, a certain fear of dogs explains by the fact that usually the dogs in the flocks, being very distrustful, do not rush to the man, but the dogs of villages are are very dangerous for the passing strange people, they frequently drag them from the horse or donkey.
The majority of dog have cut ears and tails. Reasons for cutting is difficult to explain. But it is clear that here is no serious need of any kind for this. Shepherds give these explanations: ears cut, so that the sheep would not confuse dogs with the wolf; dog with the cut ears hears better ; tail is cut so that the dog would be more evil. Cutting is done sufficiently simply: tail is cut when puppy opens his eyes, ears - on 3 month of life, taking into account the replacement of teeth. The length of cutting tail and form of cutting is different. We indicated that no training of dogs is carried out. But nevertheless several basic commands, with the aid of which they govern dogs, are present. Each dog bears the nickname, which characterizes, mainly, its color or any signs. Nicknames, on the whole, are very monotonous: white dogs are called [Ak]- bey, yellow - [Kzyl]- bey, etc. Frequently encountered nicknames :[gez], which indicates “black-eyed” and so forth. Nickname dog in the majority knows weakly and it reacts better to different cries or whistle. All dogs usually run to the whistle or the shout, and this completely fine with the shepherds, since there is no need for specific dog. There is a command, which pricks up dog ears. The dog rapidly jumps up on this command, which is given low and by that resembling the sound “of [tss]”, with the barking it runs to the nearest knoll and begins to become accustomed to the smell and watches out. There is a forbidding command: “Kit”, which in the transfer means “[Get Out]”. The forbidding command is carried out by dogs very well; to the sharp cry of shepherd they cease barking and return to their places.
It is possible to be convinced that the difficulty of mastering different methods of training by Turkmen dogs, which encountered the school of dog breeding Narkomsovkhozovin in the past year, explained by the absence of connection and contact with the man from the youngest age, since man actually does not participate in the training of his dog, only throws him food and allowed him to be located nearby.
Looking at the puppies,their behavior and their attachment to the man, which with the age are more independent and confident in their forces they need man less, they prefer only to be located near him and to follow him, it seems that with appropriate educational work from the Turkmen Alabais is possible to grow dogs successfully suitable not only for the guard, but also for the sheep service.
“Official dog breeding” (№ 1, 1935, [OSOAVIKHIM] USSR)
Having been working in expeditions in Turkmenistan since 1946, I watched the way of living of local dos called there Alabai. As the archaeological camps were situated both near the settlements and wells in the desert-and-steppe area, these observations and the contacts with the dogs as well have been taking place for a long time.The habitat of Alabai is not enclosed, cause the traditional Turkmenian settlement has no fenced yards, and the dogs walk quite free in the territory. The guarding function is of high priority here, especially when the dark comes. I know it by the time spent in the camp: we had the CAOs , and when the dark came, they began to bark at everybody who walked in the territory. Very often in the settlements they leave children, even infants, with the dogs. These dogs treat children kindly and guard them from snakes, for instance. Turkmenian Ovcharka, just like some aboriginal cats, can smell snakes, and if there are tracks of other dogs or cats, you will be safe from snakes. In the desert-and-steppe area the dogs should bear two main functions - to protect and guard the herds and owner's property as well. It is genetically conditioned. I brought a puppy to Saint Petersburg, and when it became adult and came to the Baltic republic, it saw the sheep flock and started to guard it. Guarding the camp in Turkmenia, this dog, probably, was not at ease because of lack of the sheep, and when we brought sheep clothing for the experiments, it immediately began to guard them. The mother lactates the puppies till one-month age, and then they go to guard the sheep flocks together with the adult dogs that teach the puppies to guard. My puppy hasn't got such experience, however, genetically it felt that it must guard, but didn't know how to do it.
The guarding function is carried out perfectly by the taught dogs. A herdsman and I are sitting and having tea, and a dog is watching the sheep that is at the pond. A dog determines the size of drinking bowl where twenty sheep can come up to, runs through the herd with lightning speed, separates this twenty, bark at the rest that can hinder and drives a group to a drinking bowl. When some of the sheep stays longer at a drinking bowl, a dog hurries it. Gradually the whole herd flocks together on the other side of a drinking bowl. Approximately three - four dogs can watch the herds including up to 1000 sheep, and even a boy can be a herdsman driving a bicycle and doing everything he wants. The dogs will do everything by themselves. Thus, the life rate of a dog is very rigorous. They drink extremely little. The dogs brought to Saint Petersburg keep to the same habits. They eat a little one time a day - in the evening, when a herd is lodging for the night. Every dog was given 30 kg of flour a month. The herdsmen very often were lazy to bake flat cakes for the dogs and threw them the dough pieces. Turkmen say, " We feed them with the dry flat cakes and can't stop surprising why the dogs are so large". Protecting from the wolves is also the function the CAO should bear. That's why the puppies are docked and cropped, very often they do it with a knife putting a puppy on a stone, hoping that a mother will lick the wounds. When a herd is lodging for the night, the males are put along the edges of a herd and bitch is put on the most distant place. She, a potential mother, will be the first to get anxious, and then the males will come. The fighting qualities are worked out early: While playing, the puppies snap a partner at the front foot to bite it through then and put an opponent on three feet. The Turkmenian desert wolves are not very large and as the herdsmen say, "a clever dog is able to cope with two wolves". The wolves and jackals know it well and go round our camp, howling from afar, and having made sure that a dog isn't on a leash, skirt a herd
The third environment is a city, it is less natural. The yards are fenced, and very often a dog is on a leash. Since the 80-s the dog fighting's have been held in Ashkhabad, somewhere in the suburbs.This breed is very ancient. Judging by the excavations, it exists since IV century B. C. When excavations of Altyn-depe, the ancient town of the Bronze Age (the end of III - the beginning of II century B. C.), they found the clay dog figurines with the cropped ears and docked tails. Fine pictures of such dogs are engraved on a silver cup belonging to those times, the cup was found in Northern Afghanistan and it is kept in Louver now. A master, a herdsman, a servant-boy and the dogs going in three lines are pictured there. The necessity of surviving in the extreme conditions made the dogs very adaptable. They try to defecate somewhere in the bushes in order not a trace could remain. The puppies are quiet, those who squeaked were taken by the jackals, when their mother went somewhere. The bitches are very strict with the puppies: they trample them or lie upon them, and those who die - are not a wolf-hound. We took with us a mother and two- month puppy to the Baltic republics. The mother was treating her puppy very strictly: threw him from a slope, jumped on him pressing to the ground. The herdsmen don't like the dogs that bite to blood, cause a dog must only snap slightly. Sometimes to exclude the aggressive dogs they shoot a dog that bites to blood before other dogs. This adaptability is very useful in the city conditions. Even adult dogs quickly get used to a lift or to the trains. They simply snap at dog that tries to pick a quarrel. In the urban conditions they naturally take up guarding of their owners and their property. Just like Turkmenian, these dogs don't like people walking in the nights, as they consider that at night people should stay at home. In such a vast area the local variants are possible. For instance, Turkmenian dogs are lighter than the mountain, Kirghiz, ones. Their pace is light, otherwise it would be difficult to move on the sand. In Central and Northern Kazakhstan where the large wolves lived, there also were the large Ovcharkas. People even called them "Kazakh Saint Bernards". I'm not sure that they are not cross-bred now. Turkmenian herdsmen keep watch on the breed. The old men remember the matches, names and color of the main stud dogs. They try to breed good puppies. When I got the first puppy, I asked about his genealogy, and they recalled many things including the famous wolf-hound whose barking the wolves were afraid of. The old men say, "He was old already, and people moved with him on a camel, and he needed only to bark and the predators knew who came".
Amiet. L'age des jchanges inter-iraniens 3500-1700 avant J.C. Paris. 1986. fig. 201. Member of the Academy of Science of Turkmenistan, professor V. Masson May 20, 1998 L. Dmitriev-Kavkazskiy. All Over Central Asia. Notes of a Painter. Saint Petersburg, 1824. Chapter "Chardzhuy. Between the Satras". page18"The dogs are strange here: huge, terrible, but they are indifferent to the passers-by and don't bark without necessity. If you meet such a dog, it will squint at you, growl and slide quietly somewhere in the shade.