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Health Care

Vaccines for dogs

Nobi-vac L - the liquid inactivated vaccine against leptospirosis.

Nobi-vac R - the liquid inactivated vaccine against hydrophobia.

Nobi-vac DHP - the lyophilized vaccine against plague, para viral enteritis and hepatitis.

Nobi-vac DHP+LR - vaccine against plague, para viral enteritis, hepatitis (bottle with the lyophilized component DYUP) and leptospirosis (bottle with the liquid component L).

Nobi-vac DHPPi- the lyophilized vaccine against plague, para viral enteritis, hepatitis and para influenza.

Nobi-vach DHPPi+ L - vaccine against plague, para viral enteritis, hepatitis, para influenza (bottle with the lyophilized component DНРРi) and leptospirosis (bottle with the liquid component L).

Nobi-vach DHPPi+ LR - vaccine against plague, para viral enteritis, hepatitis, para influenza (bottle with the lyophilized component DНРРi) leptospirosis and hydrophobia (bottle with the liquid component L two bottles with the liquid components L and R).

Puppies must be inoculated with 1 - oho month - 3 times (see diagram) or with 1, 5 months - 2 times.

After of the teeth change repeat revaccination in 6 months, because the teeth change almost completely weakens/attenuates immunity, and adolescent becomes defenseless. In order not to lose the puppy compulsorily inculcate it, is better twice with the interval of 14-21 days.

Recommended diagram of vaccination:

First vaccination

Revaccination in age

6-9 weeks

10-12 weeks

14 weeks

4-6 weeks

DHPPiL.

DHP+ L (R) DHPPi+ L (R)

DHPPi+ L (R) DHP+ L (R

--

6-9 weeks

DHP+ L (R) DHPPi+ L (R)

DHPPi+ L (R)

--

12 weeks

DHP+ L (R) DHPPi+ L (R)

DHP+ L

Adult dogs are proposed to be vaccinated one time per annum, including vaccination from the hydrophobia, I recommend to do this in spring. If in the nursery is the burst of plague, hepatitis, interita, etc., immediately vaccinate all puppies and young dogs regardless of the fact that they are already vaccinated. Excess vaccine will only protect them and will preserve from infection. Remarkable veterinarian Mitin recommends this method. I also do this and greatly recommend it. Result is splendid!

First Aid

Correct and rapid rendering to the medical veterinary aid of an injured animal not only will help to save life for your four-footed friend, but also will considerably facilitate the process of further treatment. Approaches and methods of rendering of first aid, presented here, are very simple, they do not require special veterinary, medical or biological preparation; therefore any dog owner can successfully apply them.

Starting to aid the injured or suddenly fallen ill dog, you should estimate the general state of the animal, explain the source of injury or disease and, if there is a possibility, try to rapidly remove this reason. Such reasons most frequently include the action of current with the electro trauma, the influence of solar rays with the solar shock, hemorrhage with the injury, action of acids and alkalis, breakdown of respiration or heart activity with the loss of consciousness. Consequently, first of all in such cases it is necessary to open the current source, to darken the room or to transfer dog into the shadow, if it underwent solar impact, to stop hemorrhage, to neutralize the influence of acid or alkali, to conduct artificial respiration. Of course the owner of a dog must know how to cope with electricity, acids and alkalis in order, not to be injured himself. It is also necessary to know the methods of conducting artificial respiration to animals. The form of the second stage of aid rendering depends on the fact of what has occurred to the dog - an accident or it fell ill. In case of injuries and burns it is necessary to put bandage, attempt to stop hemorrhage, with the fractures - to put a splint. If the dog fell ill, give it appropriate medicine. The beginning dog breeders frequently ask the question as to how to distinguish a healthy dog from a sick one? Actually, it is to easy to recognize an injury, and how to recognize a disease and make a diagnosis?

A healthy dog, as a rule, is merry, it has a bright, as the saying goes, shining fur, eyes clear, mucous is not inflamed, nose (or " forepart") cold and slightly moist (however the latter cannot always it serve as a reliable criterion). Greeting dog it is characterized by a good appetite, it leaves emptied bowels, correct and flat respiration, smooth motions. Sick dog is usually dull, its fur is dim, lusterless, appetite is reduced or entirely absent, the activity of gastrointestinal tract is disrupted, respiration hampered, nose is dry, hot, eyes rot. Motions are forged, awkward. However, it is necessary to note that the enumerated signs cannot always be expressed with sufficient vividness; therefore to be based only on them in detection of dog indisposition would be incorrect.. There are additional methods of determining the status of health of animals: thermometry, the calculation of respiration and pulse and the like. Temperature measurement of the of the dog's body with a veterinary or medical thermometer will make possible to determine its state more precisely. Since veterinary thermometers are not sufficient, the owners of dogs use usual medical ones.

To measure the dog's temperature the thermometer should be shaken, so that mercury would descend to the lower mark, grease the working end of the thermometer by petroleum jelly, take the dog by hands or lay on a side, raise by the left hand the tail and carefully push the thermometer into the rectum so that the reservoir with mercury (tip of the thermometer) would be found in the rectum. Hold the thermometer for 5 minutes. After the measurement of temperature and its record the thermometer is cleaned of fecal masses, and washed with warm water with the soap and disinfect. It is desirable to do the temperature measurement in the same hours: in the morning between 7-9 hours and in the evening between 17-19 hours. The normal temperature of the body of a dog is 37,5С-39С. Many dogs at the age before 6 months have a normal temperature it of 39,5'С. For the owner of a dog it is also necessary to learn to define the respiratory rate of the animal which is quite significant both for investigating the disease and during the treatment of the complications of the respiratory organs. Respiratory rate can be investigated, by calculating the number of inhalations or expirations during one minute. In this case they use several stages: on the motion of chest and stomach of the dog; on the motion of the wings of nose; by the application of hands to the chest, which gives the possibility to count motions.

Within the norm the number of respirations in a healthy dog varies in the significant limits: from 14 to 25-30 in a minute. This latitude of the frequency band of respiration depends on a number of factors. For example, puppies breathe more frequent than adult dogs, since exchange of substances is more active in them. In females the respiration is more frequent than in the dogs of masculine sex. The pregnant or pupped bitches breathe more frequent than non pregnant. Respiratory rate can also be influenced the be the breed of the dog, its emotional state. Respiration is noticeably affected by the height of the dog. Dogs of small breeds breathe more frequent than large: the dwarfish pincher, Japanese of cinchonas breathe 20-25 times per minute, and large, for example, Airedale - 10-14 times. This is clear. Dogs of small decorative breeds have a more active process of metabolism and - as a result of this - occurs the large heat loss. Respiration in many respects also depends on the position of the body of a dog. To animals is easier to breathe, when they stand. With the diseases, which are accompanied by the damage of respiratory organs, animals take more sedentarily position, which contributes to quickening of respiration. Respiration is also influenced by the time of day and season. At night in state of rest dog breathes more rarely. In summer in hot weather, and also in stuffy compartments with increased humidity respiration is quickened. Muscular work also sharply quickens respiration a dog. Definite significance has a factor of excitability of the animal. The appearance of an unknown person, unknown new situation can serve as a reason for the quickened respiration.

What conclusion can be drawn from what has been enumerated? An increase in the number of respiratory movements with a dog can be considered as a result of deviation from the norm only if it is not explained by reasons enumerated above and prolonged time is held. Besides the measurement of temperature and calculation of respiratory rate, for determining a dog's disease there should be also made the calculation of heart push and pulse. It is easy to perceive the heart push, after applying palm to the chest of the dog to the left, somewhat lower than blade. With dogs of small breeds the heart push is also possible to probe from the right side of the chest. Pulse can be calculated on the internal surface of thigh, after applying fingers to the femoral artery. With dogs of small breeds femoral artery is perceived under the fingers in the form of the thinly pulsatory thread, with dogs of large breeds rocks - in the form of a cord. The number of pulses in a minute varies in the limits from 70 to 12C. This variation has its reasons. The young dogs have more frequent pulse than adult. Males have a less frequent pulse is than females. During sultriness, heat, the muscular load, the emotional breakdowns pulse becomes more frequent. With diseases, which are accompanied by an increase in temperature, respiration and pulse are quickened. The detailed study of pulse helps veterinary specialist to discover the state of cardiovascular system of the ill animal more completely.

But here you have determined that your dog has fallen ill. It is necessary to render veterinary assistance. So it is necessary to have a first-aid kit at home. Its contents should be constantly supplemented by suitable drugs and surgical dressing. They first-aid kit is marked with a blue cross. The set of instruments can enter into the composition of a first-aid kit: thermometer, pipette, syringe, scissors, pincers; the surgical dressing: bandages - wide and narrow, compress paper or cellophane, individual dressing packet; the drugs: tincture of iodine, solutions of peroxide of hydrogen and diamond verdure, manganic acid potassium (permanganate, manganese), Rivanol, boric acid in the powder, alcohol boric 3%, liquid petroleum jelly , castor oil, Lidocaine (for injections and treatment of the infected wounds), baralgin, Pentalgin (anaesthetizing), sulgin, abolin, baktisubtil (fixing), antibiotics (tsifran, sulamed), lead water, the activated carbon in the tablets, the powder, bicarbonate soda (food), common salt, starch. Domestic first-aid kit will help both in treatment of different diseases and in treatment of injuries and of damages.

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Diseases of gastrointestinal tract

Different breakdowns in the work of gastrointestinal tract can be both temporary, caused or other external reasons and constants, as a result of the disease. In both cases it is difficult for the owner of the dog to discover the reason for indisposition and the diagnosis of disease; therefore after rendering of first aid at home one should consult a veterinarian. In this chapter we will examine the most typical cases of breakdown of the activity of gastrointestinal tract and the methods of first aid rendering..

Constipation

Constipation is the state, in which occurs the slow advance of contents on the bowels; bowels are released rarely; a quantity of feces is small, its mass is dense. Constipation can arise without any disease of the bowels: as a result of the incorrect nourishment of the animal, if fodder in qualitative and quantitative sense is not a sufficient stimulus of intestinal motions. For example, the dog, that obtains an insufficient fodder or that obtains the easily mastered and concentrated products of feeding, frequently suffers from constipation. A small detention of liquid in the bowels of the animal also leads to the delay of the advance of fecal masses on bowels. Constipation in dogs can be caused by the mechanical obstacles: by a swallowed alien object, by the tumor of bowels, by the inversion of guts. Delay in the advance of fecal masses appears with the abuse of enemas, with nervous complications after previous infectious diseases (plague, hepatitis), with the inflammation of anal opening, with incorrect giving of purgative medicines (many amateur dog breeders for some reason include in the composition of mineral salts Epsom salt), during the clay disease, and also because of absence of the normal walk of animal accompanied by running, games, because of short time given to walks

Constipation in dogs is expressed in the delay of stool up to several days, vomiting, refusing to eat. Dogs, that suffer from constipation, are usually sluggish, do not play, rest much. The necessary aid with constipation consists, first of all, in determination of the reason for this disease. If constipation is non-malignant, it is necessary to give the dog vegetables or petroleum jelly (1 tea spoon for maximally small breeds and 100-200 g for large dogs). this removes constipation. For facilitating the release of bowels from the fecal masses it is possible to resort also to the purifying enema. Even with the positive effect from the rendered aid it is necessary consult the veterinarian to refine the reason for constipation and outline measures for its prophylaxis. Considerable attention must be given to the nourishment of the dog: not to give bones, food must consist of milk- plant products. Dog with constipation's one should walk longer, exercise more active motions.


Bowel obstruction

The opening of gut can be overlapped by worms or randomly swallowed foreign objects. Because of this contents of bowels ceases further advance, and appears constipation. Intestinal obstruction also appears with volvulus. Bogs more frequently suffer from sealing of the small intestines. Vomiting appears, appetite disappears, animal is excited or oppressed, because of the accumulation of gases the stomach swells. Dog is examined to the stomach, combs it with its rear paws. It rests little, frequently it jumps up, change places, has an unpleasant smell from the mouth. First aid consists in the urgent transport of sick dog into the veterinary establishment for the investigation of the reason for the disease. You should not feed animal before the order of veterinarian.


Hemorrhoid

Dogs have piles because of expansion of hemorrhoidal veins. It can be internal, i.e. is located inside the rectum, and external, when hemorrhoid knots are located outside the anal opening. Overall hemostasis can be the reason for hemorrhoid, as a result of which hemorrhoid veins are insufficiently emptied. Abundant fodder contributes to the appearance of hemorrhoid it, which consists of the difficultly digested substances, and insufficient walking of animal. With the hemorrhoid the dog suffers from constipation, faces are dry, with blood. Anal opening is reddened, swelled. The smoothness of gait is disrupted, dog tries " to pass on the buttocks ", it is agitated. The necessary aid consists in the normalization of the emptying of bowels, i.e., to setting enemas of the cold water (somewhat lower than the temperature of dog), to giving purgative means - castor oil - from 1 tea spoon to 100 g, depending on breed. The favorable action is rendered by the special anti hemorrhoid suppository, introduced into the rectum. The complex of therapeutic procedures must compulsorily be combined with the increased time of the exercise and the elimination of the fodder, which consists of the difficultly digested substances.


Rectal fistula

Rectal fistulas are usually the sign of inflammatory process in this region. Fistulas are characterized by formation in the anal opening of the duct, from which are liberated and feces and pus. The necessary aid consists in bathing of the region of the fistula and anus by the disinfecting pink solution of permanganate potassium, Rivanol, nitrofurazone. It is necessary to let the dog drink the anaesthetizing: analgin, pyramidon. The animal must be under the observation of the specialist.

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Rectal prolapse

Precipitation of rectum is encountered in puppies, and also in adult dogs. It can occur with diarrheas, constipation, strong pangs during the defecation or the kind. If the mucous membrane of rectum fell out, then it reveals from the anal opening in the form of fold, it swells, it is inflamed. The swelling in the form of cylinder comes forward with the precipitation of rectum from the anal opening of the dog. Because of pressing of gut by anal sphincter rapidly increases the swelling. The necessary aid consists in bathing of the fallen part of gut and entire region of anus by the pink solution of potassium permanganate, after which it is necessary to attempt to set the gut. If the attempt did not succeed, it is necessary to urgently transport the dog to the veterinary point. Moreover it is desirable to cover the region of the fallen gut with sterile napkin, clean handkerchief, a towel. If the weather is hot, then coat the fallen section of gut with the cloth, moistened in the pink solution of potassium permanganate, Rivanol or simply in boiled water. If there is no boiled water it is possible to use raw water. Moist gauze will protect mucous membrane from drying, deadenings and appearances on it of ulcers. Finally this will accelerate the recovery of the dog.


Rupture

Rupture is an elastic tumor without the disturbance or changes in the skin of dog. This tumor or a hernial bag can have a size of a forest nut (in the dogs of small breeds) or tennis ball (in large dogs). On the origin of the ruptures they divide into inherent and those acquired, while on the clinical manifestation - to those reducible, which with the pressure on them disappear, then usually they leave; non reducible, which do not disappear with the pressure; pinched. On the anatomical arrangement of rupture they call umbilical, femoral, perineal, etc. with the detection or the suspicion to the rupture dog it is necessary to show veterinary surgeon- specialist, since rupture can gradually increase, i.e. be stuck out and cause the disorder of the normal work of different organs of animal, and the main thing - for the purpose of warning/prevention of terrible complication - strangulation of hernia.


Intestinal Parasites (worms, helminths)

The infection of a dog with worms occurs during swallowing of invasive eggs with the fodder, the water, during eating of dirtiness and the like is possible the intrauterine infection, when the larvas of helminths penetrate through the placenta (children's place) the organism of fruit. The source of infection can be kinsmen, lake, river fish, fleas, people. The presence of intestinal parasites in dogs is manifested varied and it depends on abundance of the worms, their type and on the state of the organism of dog itself. Intestinal parasites render especially harmful effect to the dogs of young age. In dogs, infected by worms, can be noted the spasms, itch/buzzing in the rear passage, diarrhea, bolts. Animals grow thin, in spite of valuable feeding, their fitness for work it is lowered. Ascarids can cause even intestinal impassability in dogs, traumatize internal organs/controls, and also separate/liberate the poisonous substances (toxins), which frequently leads to the death of puppy and young dog. the puppies, infected by worms, are arranged/located to the infectious diseases.

Preventive maintenance and treatment. Valuable hygienic feeding and content is the main veterinary-sanitary measure of the preventive maintenance of helminths in dogs. It is necessary to note that the dogs, that obtain daily the complex of vitamins A, B, D, s with the fodder, are infected by helminths more thinly/less frequently than the animals, that do not obtain the vitamins of this complex. For the purpose of the preventive maintenance of intestinal parasites in adult dogs are recommended two times per annum (in spring and in autumn) to push worms. Immediately after the purchase of puppy it is necessary to drive away worms in it, even if outwardly helminthic invasion is not manifested. Worms can be in each puppy. On the first year of the life of puppy the preventive maintenance from the worms is done every two months. With the detection of worms in feces I recommend such preparations as Drantal+, azioks+ from all forms of worms. To use necessarily, accurately following instruction, compulsorily taking into account the weight of puppy.

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Infectious diseases

Plague

Plague of dogs - acute contagious disease. By plague are ill all dogs independent of their species/rock, age and sex. Disease is characterized by an increase in the temperature of body, by conjunctivitis, catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Precipitations on the skin of sick animal are characteristic. Disease is accompanied by complications from the side of central nervous system, heart, lungs, kidneys and other organs.

Agent of the disease

Plague of dogs is caused by virus. Existence of viruses was for the first time opened in 1892 by the Russian botanist D.I. Ivanovski. Virus of plague it is characterized by stability. It remains and does not lose the ability to infect, being located in the cold in the dried state to nine months. At a temperature 40-45C the virus perishes in two weeks, while under the influence of temperature 100S it perishes during one-two minutes. Disastrously act on the virus of plague the 1-2%- emulsion of lysol and creolin, the 1%- solution of formalin, 10-20%- chloric- milk of lime.

Epizootiology of the disease

Under the natural conditions by plague can be ill mink, the polar foxes, soboli, foxes. To plague are receptive the dogs of all ages, however, more frequent disease appears at the age from three months to a year. In present day according to the data of doctors morbidity by plague it increased by 30% in essence due to the morbidity of puppies to 1,5 months. In order to fasten the immunity of the newly born puppies, 4 I recommend to inoculate pregnant bitches in the beginning of second half of pregnancy with the alliteration in two weeks by the vaccine NOBI-VAC DHP+L without hydrophobia. According to this method, here already more than 2- X of years very successfully are inoculated all boughs of nursery. No side effects it is discovered. Age-qualification stability to the disease by plague in puppies - suckling's is explained by the passive immunity, acquired by them through the milk of mother. the puppies, that were being born from the mothers endured plague, are more steadfast to the disease, than born from the not ached dogs. this is explained by the presence in organism in the endured mothers of the anti plague antibodies, which the born puppies inherit.

The greatest susceptibility to infection by plague is observed after the removal of puppy from the mother and its transfer/translation into the new conditions of the content and the feeding. Any breakdown of content and feeding of puppy it leads to weakening of the organism of animal, that, naturally, affects its resistibility to infectious diseases. A breakdown of the feed mode, most frequently it appears, when in puppy the replacement of teeth occurs. Usually this physiological process proceeds unnoticeably; however, sometimes appear unhealthy phenomena from the side of gums, which negatively affects the appetite of puppy.

How the dog is infected

Sick dogs are the source of the agent of infection. In the organism of sick animal the virus is contained in the blood, the spleen, the liquids of the breast abdominal of cavities, in the head and spinal cord. In the surrounding environment the virus of plague is allotted with the urine, the feces, with the flows from the nose, eye, to oral cavity, with the skin dandruff, by air-drop way, and also by man (through the foot-wear, the clothing, the objects/subjects, the hands). Are recently obtained information, that as the carriers of virus they serve and different insects, that parasite on the skin of dogs. Dogs can be infected during the exhibitions and taking out on training areas, in the hospitals, during the enclosure. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen veterinary-sanitary control, to observe the rules of hygiene and sanitation in the veterinary points/items, to strengthen the propaganda of veterinary-sanitary measures. To the rapid spread of the disease by plague contributes the stability of virus in the environment. For example, being located in the upper respiratory tract of sick dog, viruses with the cough and the barking fall into the environment together with the smallest droplets of saliva and mucus and can remain in air of the closed compartment/room several hours. It is natural that greeting the dog, that fell into the compartment/room, where was located earlier patient, inhales together with air and the virus of plague. This way of infection is called air-drop.

Taking into account the durability of virus and the plural ways of infection, the workers of animal hospitals must strictly observe anti-infection measures. Thus, with the large method of animals in the offices of method it is necessary to switch on bactericidal lamps, to anneal/scorch by the gas burners tables, not to forget about the replacement of dressing gowns, working/treatment of the set of instruments of inspection, moist harvesting of floors with the disinfecting solutions/openings. In combination with the application of specific sera and vaccines this complex of measures can considerably reduce the percentage of the infection of dogs by the virus of plague. The outbreaks of plague appear at any time of year, but more frequent disease comes in spring and in autumn. There is an opinion that the meteorological factors, which cause super cooling organism, influence the development of disease. In actuality, a cold only contributes to air-drop infection and heavier course of disease. Plague appears not from the super cooling, and from the contact of healthy, but not possessing a sufficient immunity against plague of dogs with the agent of this terrible infection.

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Symptoms and the course of disease

From the moment of infection to the first manifestations of the disease of dog it passes from 2-4 days to 2-3 weeks. this period is called concealed/latent, or incubative. Dog seems clinically healthy; however, during the attentive observation it is possible to note apathy, loss of appetite. The course of disease can be super-acute, acute, sub acute and abortive .Super-acute course is manifested by the fever suddenly appearing in dog. Animal is oppressed, it rejects the fodder, is clogged into the dark angles, under the furniture. Eyes rot. The spasms of extremities are noted. Death usually begins on the second or third day of disease. Acute and sub acute flow is characterized by the great variety of the clinical signs, which depend on the state of the resistibility of the organism of a dog. The abortive course of disease is more characteristic for adult animals. It is encountered in dogs, it is earlier than received anti plague inoculation, but those not manufactured for any reason for the stressed immunity, in dogs with immunity died-out into some of degree. In such animals is noted insignificant rise in temperature to E9,"-ya0s; the marked apathy; the absence of interest in the game, in the dainties; reduction in the appetite. Dog badly reacts to the call. However, with the inspection is revealed only the inflammation of mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. This state is held two three of twenty-four hours, then begins recovery, which is explained by the rapidity of the mobilization of the shielding forces of organism to the production of anti plague antibodies.

Plague is divided also into the typical, the pure, either the natural, and that complicated, or that mixed. During illness with plague the dog becomes sluggish, easily it tires, fur is made by lusterless, loses luster, it is tousled. Animal rejects the fodder, dainties are taken unwillingly. Temperature in the rectum 39,8-40'С. The reddening of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, eyes, nose is noted. In this case the expiration of serous- purulent secret is observed. There can be diarrhea, sometimes - vomiting. This state can be retained several days, then improvement begins, and animal gets better. However, repeated rise in temperature with the complete manifestation of the clinical picture of plague very frequently follows the imaginary recovery. Therefore it is necessary attentively to relate to the indisposition of animal, to daily measure the temperature, also, after recovery. All initial manifestations of disease in dog are sharply pronounced in the period of the recovery/return of disease. Temperature stably is held on high numbers 40-41 "С. The dog is oppressed, the complete absence of appetite, from the eyes is separated/liberated the mucopurulent secret, which dries and are formed crust- clusters/clots. Sick dog is clogged into the dark places, since photophobia is tested/experienced. Conjunctiva is inflamed, simultaneously can be inflamed the cornea of eye, which frequently leads to its dimness, and to ulceration.

The disease by plague leads to the damage of the vitally important organs of animal. Thus, frequently the action of plague undergo the respiratory organs. The characteristic symptoms of disease appear. The mucous membrane of nose first of all is inflamed. Serous- purulent secret is separated/liberated from the nostrils. It dries, are formed crusts in the nasal passages and on the wings of nose. Animal sneezes, combs nose by paws, rubs snout against the objects/subjects, trying to somehow free the nasal passages from the saved secret. The respiration of dog is hindered/hampered, it, it is made that by more stressed with the characteristic sound for the " placed nose ". For facilitating the respiration the dog breathes by mouth, in this case the cheeks in it are fanned. Disease is accompanied by the inflammation of opening/throat and almonds. With the late taken measures for treatment into the process are implicated larynx, the trachea, bronchi and lungs. Barking becomes hoarse, cough appears. Respiration made more frequent: to 60-80 times instead of 14-24 in a minute.

With plague can be surprised gastrointestinal tract, the mucous membrane of mouth reddens and swells. Appetite is absent, animal badly eats up food. Appear vomiting, increased thirst. Bolts are changed by diarrheas. In the fecal masses with the diarrhea is much mucus, the admixture/impurity of the blood. Unpleasant putrefactive smell is characteristic both of the mouth of animal and of fecal masses. The stomach of sick dog is stressed, with its feeling is noted sharp sickliness - dog even it moans in this case. Very frequently at the skin covers (stomach, the internal surface of thighs, near the mouth, eye) appear the precipitations of small phials, filled with yellowish- greenish secret. Phials burst themselves, the becoming wet sections gradually dry, and on the skin remain tracks in the form of bright specks. Hair cover badly is retained - hair fall out in large quantities. An enormous quantity of accumulation of dandruff is noted. The skin of animal acquires specific smell. The dryness of forepart/nose mirror simultaneously begins. The crumbs of fingers/pins are condensed and are cracked.

In the heavy cases of the course of disease edemas of stomach, extremities, dewlap are noticeable. this is explained the disturbance/breakdown of cardiovascular activity, by pulmonary insufficiency and damage/defeat of the function of the liver and kidneys. The breakdowns of the central nervous system of sick dog are some of the most serious and most dangerous complications. In the appearance of these damages/defeats the greatest value has the toxic action of the virus of plague on the nervous system. Furthermore, the toxic action render the decay products of the cells of the tissue of the struck organism, the products of the vital activity of the bacteria, that intensively are multiplied in the sick organism. Appear the disorders of the vessels, which feed nervous system. In this case nerve cells and fibers of head and spinal cord undergo the direct action of toxic substance. There are the foundations for assuming that the virus of plague after entering into the common blood circulation system of dog penetrates the spinal and brain, where it is multiplied, is accumulated and the heavy damage/defeat of nervous system is caused. During the damage/defeat of central nervous system in dogs very frequently is surprised the center of thermal control, which is usually expressed by the not descending high temperature of body. All complications of the central nervous system of dog with plague can appear in the beginning of disease, at the erosion/climax of disease, at the end of the disease and in the stage of recovery. In the general/common words it is possible to say that with plague of dogs all complications of nervous system are early and late. They can be expressed in the form of the damage/defeat of brain (meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis) and peripheral of nerves(nevrity, polinevrity).

Damages of head and spinal cord with plague they are observed more frequently in young dogs. Such animals become sluggish, begin to moan, extremities weaken, temperature rises. The consciousness of dog changes. It limply reacts to the call, the dainty, the toys, it does not learn owner and members of family. The damage/defeat of oculomotor nerves is possible which is expressed in the " institution " of eyeballs so that are seen only the proteins of eyes. Are surprised optical nerves, which leads to blindness. Disease can be limited to paresis and paralysis of extremities. The atrophy of musculature is noted. It is made by sluggish, extremities become more thinly. In the majority of the cases in dogs with encephalomyelitides are observed the damages/defeats of sphincters, what is accompanied by delay or thinner/less frequent - by the non retention of urine and feces. Epileptic fits very frequently also with encephalomyelitides appear. They are possible both in the acute period of the disease of dogs and a certain time after disease, they are accompanied by the loss of the consciousness of animal, by the incidence/drop, spasms, biting of language, by isolation/liberation of foam from the mouth (mouth), by involuntary defecation and urination. Fits appear both in the daytime and at night, they can last from 30 seconds to 5 minutes. Moreover some dogs after fits are oppressed, motionlessly apathetic they lie/rest, others somewhere try to run, they are encountered the objects/subjects, they fall, they search for food and it they greedily eat up. Recovery in such cases is extremely rare, but the duration of disease does not exceed 10-15 days.

Besides central, with plague is surprised peripheral nervous system. Frequently occur lumbar- sacral radiculitis, neuritides or neuralgias, polyneuritides. As a rule, disease begins from the root pains, which are gradually extended along the nerve trunk. The damages/defeats of peripheral nervous system can be accompanied by the twitching of the separate groups of muscles of head, extremities, body. these twitchings bear the name " pestilential tick ". Tick can be harassing, i.e., to reach 50-60 twitching's in one minute. Diagnosis of plague is composed of an explanation of the prosperity of locality/terrain, city block on this disease, a study of the clinical signs/criteria of disease and data of pathoanatomical dissection. Specific virus- diagnostics is more reliable and more contemporary. But, in essence, on plague veterinary specialists diagnose according to the clinical signs/criteria of disease the dogs . High temperature of the body of dog during several days with the inflammation of the mucous membranes of eyes, nose, isolation/liberation of purulent secret, the appearance of a characteristic rash on the skin, diarrheas - all this speaks about the possibility of the disease of animal of plague. S by plague, however, it is easy to entangle such illnesses as the diseases of the respiratory organs/controls of catarrhal nature, infectious hepatite, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, piroplazmoz, rheumatism, helminthic diseases, gastrointestinal disorders from the incorrectly comprised ration of feeding, food poisonings, and also poisonings by agricultural toxic chemicals. Therefore correct diagnosis can place only veterinary. Extension of disease and its outcome they depend on the form of disease, timely correct treatment, and also on the resistibility of the organism of dog.

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Treatment of a sick dog

Plague of dogs - insidious disease. Taking place in the beginning it is easy, it is dangerous by severe complications. Therefore is necessary timely and qualified veterinary help.


Prophylaxis of the plague

Any owner of a dog it must know that the fallen ill animal becomes the source of infection; therefore sick dog one should insulate, and walk only on the guide and only in those places, which little attend healthy dog. In the time of the outbreak of plague the owners of one house or entire city block they are obligated to together solve, where to walk the dogs, sick with this illness. The organs of district veterinary service must conduct the disinfections of these of places. In the treatment of pestilential dog under the household conditions necessary to observe all rules of hygiene, without allowing its contact with the healthy to fellows . The room, where sick dog is located, one should air: in the cold time of the year - two or three times a day on 10-15 minutes, and in summer, if there are no drafts, to generally hold windows opened. Aired compartment/room must be also during the harvesting, since together with the dust particles into air rise viruses, microbes. Harvesting it should be made with moist method with the application of the disinfecting solutions/openings of chloramines, of carbolic acid, creolin, lysol, of calcium hypo chlorite, caustic natrium. With the unfavorable outcome of disease necessary to conduct the complete disinfections of apartment, moreover the objects/subjects of withdrawal and equipment - guides, collars, muzzles, brush - they are burned.

Hydrophobia

Hydrophobia as plague; it is also infectious disease. It widespread. By them can be ill all warm-blooded animals and the man. Hidden period of disease is usually equal to 3-6 weeks, but in puppies it can not exceed 5-7 days. The sometimes latent period is sufficiently prolonged and reaches separate adult dogs of one have year. Furious form of disease in dogs it is characterized by the following signs/criteria: animal becomes sluggish, it departs from the people, it is clogged into the dark places, unwillingly are carried out the fed commands, appetite is reduced. But the sometimes fallen ill dog can be by very obtrusive, increased affectionate, licks to the master of hand, face. this state is changed by uneasiness/unrest, timidity and increased irritability. Dog begins to be viewed along the sides, to listen, groundlessly to bark. Appetite is perverted. Fodder is eaten up unwillingly, and inedible objects/subjects, such, as stones, straw, rag and other, they are swallowed with large greediness. Sick animal combs hair or masticates the place of bite, through which the virus penetrated in the organism. Then in dog ingestion is disrupted. Dog chokes, saliva is separated/liberated in large quantities, barking is made by hoarse, that passes into the howl. Excitation is supplemented with aggressiveness and Hydrophobia. Dog attacks the people and animals. The assaults of uproar are changed by oppression. Animal, after losing strength, lies/rests motionlessly, but least irritation causes the new assault of uproar and aggressiveness.

Gradually voice in dog disappears, animal appears exhausted, lower jaw sags as a result of paralysis of muscles, language is thrown out, saliva abundantly flows, is noted squint and corneal opacity. Rear extremities it are sultry, dog moves only on the front/leading paws, back is dragged. Gradually paralysis covers the musculature of front/leading extremities and body. Then it is sultry the activity of respiratory apparatus and heart, which leads dog to the death. Disease lasts by 3-11 days. Quiet form of disease in dogs recently it is encountered more frequently. In this case the excitation is absent or it is weakly expressed. But in the beginning of the disease so of dog they can also bite both the people and animals. Death with this form of Hydrophobia begins on 2-4 day. Atypical form of disease it flows/occurs with the characteristic features of gastritis and enteritis. Vomiting, the bloody diarrhea, which wastes dog, it hides the developing dangerous disease. Necessary aid: they plant animal to the strong/firm leash and insulate with the least suspicion to the disease by Hydrophobia. The owner of animal immediately notifies about his suspicion into the nearest veterinary point/item, and during the confirmation of suspicion without delay is turned into medical Pasteur point. Prophylaxis of disease is consists in the yearly vaccination to dogs.

Diagnosis and the treatment of the infectious diseases, such as plague, enteritis, hepatite, etc., can, produce only veterinarian. Therefore upon the appearance of signs/criteria of indisposition (apathy, the loss of appetite or failure of the fodder, a change in the chair, vomiting, a change in the temperature) owner must immediately turn to the specialist, without losing precious time, and not to be occupied self treatment. To avoid the appearance of infectious diseases produce vaccination, beginning from the age 1,5-2 months, according to the diagram, recommended by factory owner or veterinary doctor

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Care after a sick dog
General care

Much influence on the outcome of disease renders care of animal. Place for the dog must be selected without the drafts, further from the television set and another radio equipment. Should not be held sick dog on the kitchen, since evaporation during the preparation of food, the leak/leakage of the incomplete products of the combustion of gas - all this negatively affects process treatment. The room, where sick dog is contained, must be aired, in it should be daily carried out moist harvest with use by 2%-nog6 of solution of chloramines. The owner of dog must remember that the cleanliness of compartment/room - one of the important factors of recovery animal. Especially thorough withdrawal must be during the disturbance/breakdown of the activity of sphincters. In such cases of the region of anal opening/aperture and sexual/floor organs/controls necessary to process by the solution of Rivanol or permanganate of potassium in breeding of y: 1:1000. With the delay of urination one time in a 24 hour period should be conducted the catheterization by boiled catheter, preliminarily processed sterile petroleum jelly. After the removal/distance of urine the bladder necessary to water antibiotic. So that did not appear the bedsores, and also for their preventive maintenance the protruding parts of the body of dog must be rubbed by alcohol (possible by vodka) or 50%- solution of potassium permanganate. The bedding of dog is freed/released from the toys, bones, remainders/residues of any of pishchi.


Vitamins against diseases

There is no region in the practical veterinary science, wherever vitamins were not used. However, it is not necessary to think that vitamins - only means for treating one illness or another. Vitamins - this the component part of the complex of the therapeutic procedures, assigned the patient of an animal. Vitamins to a considerable degree determine general/common reactivity and resistibility of organism, response reaction to the emergent infection is formed/shaped. On the degree of saturation of the organism of dog by separate vitamins depends initial period and course of disease, which, undoubtedly, affects also its outcome. The infectious diseases, which arose in dog with the vitamin insufficiency, flow/occur under the conditions of the decreased resistibility of organism and, therefore, more hard. Your role during the treatment of dogs with different diseases plays vitamin C. There is the specific connection/communicating between the degree of saturation of the organism of animal by vitamin s and the response reaction to the agent of infectious disease. An insufficient quantity of this vitamin leads to reduction in the shielding reaction of organism and decrease the natural as well as acquired insensitivity of animal to the infectious diseases, including plague and hepatitis.

Vitamin C, as has already been mentioned, they call anti-infection vitamin. It neutralizes the toxic products of the vital activity of different microorganisms, positively it acts on the organism of sick dog, increasing directional stability of the stimulation of the production/consumption of antibodies and reaction of phagocytosis. Therefore the need for the vitamin's in sick animal sharply increases.

To the vitamins, which influence the infectious process, they relate at present and A. Vitamin regulates the normal functioning of the epithelium of skins and mucous membranes, it prevents the penetration of the agents of infection into the organism of a dog.

Much value the inclination of infectious diseases they have also vitamins В1, B2, B6, PP. Introduction of them into the organism of sick dog strengthens the antibacterial action of sulfanilamide preparations and antibiotics.

With the noncontiguous diseases of skins in the dogs, that arose as a result of a deficiency in the vitamins, should be used vitamins B6, A, B3 .

Pantothenic acid regulates the activity of sebaceous glands, stimulates an increase in the hair.

Vitamins A, s, By2, B2 have a positive effect with the abundance in animals of dandruff.

It is noted, that the vitamins А, С, Е, etc. have an effect and on the exchange of sulfur in the skin of the animal.

Sulphur is taken active part in the biological processes, which cause an increase in hair.

Vitamins are active assistants also during the treatment of eczema's, neurodermatitides and different pustulous diseases in dogs.

They are widely used vitamins during the treatment of the diseases of eyes. It is noted, that sight negatively affects the deficiency in the organism of vitamins А, В1, B2, С.

Much attention should be given to the application of vitamins during the treatment of different by the traumas. Native researchers proved that any injury, wound process, surgical interference increase the need of the organism of animal for the vitamins, especially in the vitamin C. As a local resource during the treatment of wound surfaces in dogs can successfully be used the oil solution of vitamin A, which possesses the soothing action, the stimulating increase in the epithelial cloth and that creates above the wound surface shielding cover. For the stoppage hemorrhage, stimulations of the healing of wounds use K. If vitamin in dog there are fresh shallow wounds with the bleeding granulations, the irrigation by their 1%- m by the solution/opening of vitamin K gives a good effect. Wounds rapidly heal/begin to live, and is formed durable scar.

In the present time they are obtained the data about the positive action of vitamins B2 on the treatment of the injuries, which are accompanied by the bone fracture. Vitamin B2 contributes to the restoration/reduction of the functional state of the traumatized nerves, bone tissue and to the healing of the wound surfaces of skins and muscles, accelerates formation of new blood vessels and young muscle cells after the injury of skeletal musculature of a dog.

Clinically proved that in dogs with S- avitaminoses the breaks/fractures did not grow together, but healing concluded with the formation of false joint. The formation of callus occurred slowly with D- avitaminoses, polyneuritides were connected up with V- avitaminoses, and the accretion of the bones was slowed down. Hypervitaminosis can be sharp/acute, when owner fed the immediately large portion of vitamins to dog, and chronic, when dog in the long period obtains the increased doses of vitamins.

For example, attempting to prevent the puppies have the disease by rachitis, owners they abundantly regale by their vitamin d. as a result of exceeding the dose of vitamin in animals they begin the irreversible processes in the cloths and the organs/controls, increases the content of calcium in the blood, which leads to the deposit of mineral salts in the tissues of heart, lungs, kidneys, in the wall of stomach. Suffers also the nervous system of animal. puppies become sluggish, much lie/rest, they do not play, they badly eat up fodder. Vomiting frequently is observed, diarrheas, frequently rises temperature, skin becomes dry, peeling is possible. In the dogs of white color the skin acquires the yellow- gray of color. With the surplus of vitamin A in the organism of dog it appears so-called A - hypervitaminosis.

Again they showed that the introduction to animals of different species of the large doses of vitamin A renders the toxic action: in dogs is developed emaciation, the dryness of the cornea of eyes, the loss of appetite, on the skins comes forward the rash, that frequently they assume/take as the beginning of the disease by plague, the small cracks appear at the mucous membranes, woolen cover becomes less thick. Hypervitaminosis causes in the organism of dog the S- vitamin insufficiency, which is expressed in the reddening of gums near the teeth and their inflammation. To the dogs of any species of the large doses of the vitamins of group V in animals are observed different allergic of reactions. Recently pharmacologists do not recommend to practical veterinary specialists to introduce in one syringe the openings of vitamins В12, В1, B6, as it was proved to be with the feeding, containing in the molecule tsiankoblamina cobalt ion contributes to destruction of two of others vitamins. There data about the fact that the feeding to pregnant females in large doses of vitamins leads to the phenomena of toxicosis, which is negatively shown in descendants.

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Vitamins


Vitamin С (ascorbic acid)
liver, hypophysis, adrenal glands, crystalline lenses of eyes, mare milk- koumiss.

Vitamin D( vitamin d) cod-liver oil.

Vitamin Е (tocopherol)
in plants, in liver, vegetable fats.

Vitamin К
in green parts of plants, in fish meal.

Vitamin А (or carotene)
is most rich in the liver of sea fishes, and meat products: beef and pig liver. Much in eggs, in yolks, carrot, beet, pumpkin.

Vitamin В (or thiamine)
contained in root-crops, fruits, beans, nuts, liver, kidneys, heart.

Vitamin В2 (riboflavin)
baker, beer, dry yeasts, liver, kidney, heart.

Vitamin В6 (pyridoxine)
in yeast, cereals, liver, fish, eggs.

Vitamin РР (nicotinic acid)

FOLIC ACID (folium leave)
in yeast, green leaves of plants.

Vitamin В12 (cyanocobalamin)
contained in milk, eggs, liver, kidneys.

Vitamin В3 (pantothenic acid)
in beer and baker's yeast, liver, yolk of eggs, rice, carrot, cabbage, potatoes.

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